Thursday, December 26, 2019

How Mark Twains Views on Slavery Evolved

What did Mark Twain write about slavery? How did Twains background influence his position on slavery? Was he a racist? Born in a Slave State Mark Twain was a product of  Missouri, a slave state. His father was a judge, but he also traded in slaves at times. His uncle, John Quarles, owned 20 slaves, so Twain witnessed the practice of slavery firsthand whenever he spent summers at his uncles place. Growing up in Hannibal, Missouri,  Twain witnessed a slave owner brutally murder  a slave for merely doing something awkward. The owner had thrown a rock at the slave with such force that it killed him. Evolution of Twains Views on Slavery It is possible to trace the evolution of Twains thoughts on slavery in his writing, ranging from a pre-Civil War letter that reads somewhat racist to postwar utterances that reveal his clear opposition to slavery and his revulsion of slaveholders. His more telling statements on the subject are listed here in chronological order:   In a letter written in 1853, Twain wrote: I reckon I had better black my face, for in these Eastern states, n----rs are considerably better than white people. Nearly two decades later, Twain  wrote to his good friend, novelist, literary critic, and playwright  William Dean Howells  about Roughing It  (1872):  I am as uplifted and reassured by it as a mother who has given birth to a white baby when she was awfully afraid it was going to be a mulatto. Twain laid bare his opinion of slavery in his classic  The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,  published in 1884.  Huckleberry, a runaway boy, and Jim, a runaway slave, sailed down the Mississippi together on a flimsy raft. Both had escaped abuse: the boy at the hands of his family, Jim from his owners. As they travel,  Jim,  a caring and loyal friend, becomes a father figure to Huck, opening the boys eyes to the human face of slavery. Southern society at the time considered  helping a runaway slave like Jim, who was thought to be inviolable property, the worst crime you could commit short of murder. But Huck sympathized so profoundly with Jim that the boy freed him. In Twains Notebook #35, the writer explains:   It seemed natural enough to me then; natural enough that Huck his father the worthless loafer should feel it approve it, though it seems now absurd. It shows that that strange thing, the conscience—the unerring monitor—can be trained to approve any wild thing you want it to approve if you begin its education early and stick to it. Twain  wrote in A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthurs Court (1889): The blunting effects of slavery upon the slaveholders moral perceptions are known and conceded the world over; and a privileged class, an aristocracy, is but a band of slaveholders under another name. In  his essay The Lowest Animal  (1896), Twain wrote: Man is the only Slave. And he is the only animal who enslaves. He has always been a slave in one form or another  and has always held other slaves in bondage under him in one way or another. In our day, he is always some mans slave for wages and does that mans work, and this slave has other slaves under him for minor wages, and they do his work. The higher animals are the only ones who exclusively do their own work and provide their own living. Then in 1904, Twain wrote in his notebook: The skin of every human being contains a slave. Twain said In his autobiography, finished in 1910 just four months before his death and published in three volumes, beginning at his behest  in 2010: The class lines were quite clearly drawn and the familiar social life of each class was restricted to that class. For most of Twains life, he railed against slavery in letters, essays, and novels as an evil manifestation of mans inhumanity to man. He eventually became a crusader against the thinking that sought to justify it.

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

African Slavery Essay - 1695 Words

Ladies and gentlemen; I dont believe that anyone in this chamber would move to disagree with the idea that slavery was an atrocity, committed from the depths of the darkest parts of the human sole. Africans were seized from their native land, and sold into lives of servitude into a foreign land. Indeed, it was a tragedy on such a scale that cannot be measured nor quantified. And it is this very notion of unquantifiable tragedy which speaks to the matter of reparations for slavery. To be quite blunt, reparations, even if they may be deserved, are not feasible under any system or economic tangent - indeed such an undertaking would only not remedy the situation, but it would sink Africa and her people deeper into the cycle of†¦show more content†¦A cognate situation with African Americans is with that of Afrocentric history (Asante, 174); many suggest that perhaps we ought to provide black student with their own curriculum, such as to instill in them a sense of pride that will improve their education. The U.S. News and World Report comments: quot;The Afrocentric curriculum is usually presented as an attempt to develop pride in black children by giving them a racial history†¦ But what kind of pride and self-esteem is likely to grow from false history? And how much more cynical will black children be if they discover that they have been conned once again, only this time by Afrocentrists? †¦ It is a sure-fire formula for separatism and endless racial animosity (Leo, 26)quot; This author suggests that indeed, conferring upon youths of African descent their own quot;differentquot; history will not only further the racial segregation, but also provide them with a false sense of history, fueling the animosity. If the rest of the world were to suddenly step down and bestow upon Africa special privileges and grants, it would only create a sense among the global village that Africans are different and require some sort of special assistance in order to succeed. This type of compensatory system would not only be insufficient toShow MoreRelatedThe Slavery Of African Slavery1128 Words   |  5 PagesSlavery is one of the most inhumane acts the world has ever known. Africans were kidnapped and forced into slavery by Europeans; they were separated from their families and forced to work on plantations. They were placed in unbearable conditions and the prevalent racism attached onto this system fueled the mistreatment and oppression of black people for years to come. The origins of the widespread African slavery in America as we know today started in early colonial America when people needed cheapRead MoreThe Slavery Of African Slavery1129 Words   |  5 PagesIn America, people know that slavery existed for about four- hundred years. The enslavement of Africans was probably the most horrific events in American history. Within these 400 years not only were people taken ag ainst their will and put to work for no pay. This time can even be considered a Holocaust in America. Many slaves were beaten, raped and killed because of it, several lives were sacrificed throughout this disgusting era in American history. Slavery was definitely the roughest time periodRead MoreThe Slavery Of African Contingents874 Words   |  4 Pagesperpetuating slavery before the Civil War.†(William Reed) This argument has been demonstrated: a compensation should be provided to the descendants of enslaved people in America, because their ancestors had performed the tedious labor over past few hundred years ago. However, it is clearly that the idea remains highly controversial. Looking at the historical evidence that have been presented, now we can analysis the historical events that were actually contributed to the slavery of African contingentsRead MoreThe Slavery Of African Slaves1283 Words   |  6 PagesThe origin of slavery was not caused because of racism. As ric e cultivation expanded in the South, movement of white indentured servants was declining due to the harsh conditions. Moreover, white landowners began to feel unsure about their dependence on white workers because of the scarcity of labor in the South. The importation of African slaves was a response to a growing demand for labor. Thus, slavery was the desire for white landowners to find a useful, stable workforce. Racism was created toRead MoreThe Slavery Of African Slaves1906 Words   |  8 PagesThe inequities presented through the oppression of African slaves from 16th to 19th century Britain due to increased forms of slavery, highlight extremities relative to their mistreatment and the consequent need for betterment through the abolition movement. Increasing tension between racial populations as a result of the promotion of slave trade, increased through their mistreatment, evoked opposing movements from pro-abolitionists. Similarly, significant events and figures contributed greatly toRead MoreThe Complexity Of African Slavery2267 Words   |  10 PagesThe complexity of African slavery has impacted Mexico in ways one may not have imagined. Thousands of Africans were brought to Mexico to become slaves and do manual labor. On average, a slave would cost anywhere between 150 to 400 pesos, and studies show that owning a slave was considered a luxury. Slavery in Mexico had an enormous impact in the social aspect during the colonial period to a large extent. The labor jobs that Africans worked, helped Mexico become the lead in the commercial trade ofRead MoreSlavery : The African American Slavery2189 Words   |  9 PagesAPUSH - Steiker Period 6 Slavery 1775 - 1830 â€Å"Those who will not reason, are bigots, those who cannot, are fools, and those who dare not, are slaves, † said George Gordon Byron. Though slavery has never had a universal definition, one might describe it as the dependent labour by one person performed to another who is not of his or her family. It was thought to have come about after a dramatic labour shortage in particular areas or countries. In America, slavery has always been a highly debatedRead MoreThe Slavery Of African Americans1207 Words   |  5 PagesThere is no denying that the period of time where slavery was legal in America was a dark time that all wish was expunged from the nation’s history. Ever since the end of WWII came around and Japanese and victims of the Holocaust started to receive reparations for the ordeals then endeavored. This launched a proposal that the descendants of the enslaved people in the United States would be given some type of compensation. The form of compensation varies from individual monetary payments to land-basedRead MoreThe Slavery Of African Slave Trade1039 Words   |  5 Pagescaught up in the moment it is hard to see the larger picture. We get excited and momentum starts to speed up, but this excitement and momentum blinds us from the feelings of others. This is exactly what happened with the practiced slavery that took place in Africa. Slavery included stripping humans of their identities and classifying them as property, forcing them to obey their masters. The slaves had no rights and humanity had fled their thinking. Some even claimed slaves to be aliens even thoughRead MoreSlavery And The African Americans1071 Words   |  5 Pagesdiscussing slavery with other individuals. Throughout the years I have been a victim of my own ignorance for believing that Slavery undoubtedly ended in 1865. I can honestly admit that I was wrong. After having watched the documentary â€Å"Slavery by Another Name† I gained new insight into the history of slavery and the struggles that African Americans suffered during that time. I learned that slavery did not end after the 13th Amendment was passed. After the Amendment was passed African Americans were

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Ethics And Social Responsibility Better Business Bureau

Question : Student to do following case study from the prescribed textbook and the end of the case study: " Better Business Bureau: Protecting Consumers Dealing with Organizational Ethics Challenges" Answer : Introduction The consumers are essentially required to be protected from all types of deceiving matters. There is a BBB which would support the requirements of the partnership which will be a non-profitable yet helpful organisation in the sense that there will be necessary sponsorship which would be necessary to truly seek the fees of accreditation. The websites, newspapers and the other social (Cheng et al., 2014) media are said to bring a harm to the standards of BBB (Better Business Bureau). The work of them is to inform all the customers about the liable services they are related to with a range to travel smart along with better strategic shopping and improvement in their daily living. To alert the individuals about the different scams of the people, there is BBB which (Carroll Buchholtz, 2014) is always ready to support people under the self-regulation case, bringing a change responsible for better organisation and advertisement in the practices of commercial products. Summary The organisations have brought an increasing social and ethical responsibility on CSR to detect cases which are again the main approach and views. The people mainly try to integrate and analyse the content of BBB (Better Business Bureau), which is considered to be one of the best association related to the trading matters. The strategic approach and analysis of BBB is to generally conduct (Dobele et al., 2014) its CSR, inferring that it has been involved in many projects along with programs with the ethical sources which have a great concern with the environment. The organisations and the other social media websites which will help in receiving the information from the major organisation sources established under National Advertising Review Council (NARC) has been in an integration (Spence, 2014) which will help the consumers to be benefits with the most trustable members in the market place. In order to reach to an expanded phase, the BBB has framed to emphasise mainly on maintain i ts relationship with proper (Dillon et al., 2014) commitment in their work. The people are required to follow an ethnic approach which will lead to effective communication. The implicit approach of NAD is to claim most of the people who could try to take responsibility of the federal trade communion. (Hollingworth Valentine, 2014) Description The exaggeration to decide whether there is a false advertisement or whether it is supported with the new outlook, there is a system namely, Pay-for-Play which is able to balance the rating higher or lower to the (Wesley MacCallum, 2014) accredited business accounts. There is a rating depending upon the work and how efficiently the requirements are being fulfilled. These ethical challenges are important to keep a rise to the prestige of any trading brand and oneself. To meet the challenges, there is a need to meet up all the chapters of business which will have a resolution to manage all the controversies and which will have an award to defend all the allegations claiming to upgrade to the misconduct where some instances will have a misconduct on the branches which will have counts depending upon the grades and the complaints. (Mackenzie Peters, 2014). Ques1. Which is the most important National Advertising Divisions more important, Stakeholder, business and consumers? Ans. The most important division according to BBB (Better Business Bureaus) is mainly to keep the stakeholder groups into consideration when there are challenges to be met under certain consumers. There is a (Ben et al., 2014) recommendation as per the forces which refer to advertise the business according to their comfort in the technology. The accuracy which is met is advertised as per the guidance which could lead to an approval of certain claims. The Advertising can be confusing to some consumers hence, people should be given a clear idea of the activities and the challenges that the company has to meet. With the NAD in existence, one can say that they have helped the consumers in providing and solving their woes leading to a development and protection. (Montiel Delgado-Ceballos, 2014). Ques2. Do you believe that BBB can be truly impartial given its financial dependence on business? Ans. With the certainty to lead a longer association in BBB, one has to build in interest to lead for a better consumer combination. The forums and the reviews have claims that the organisations which are attached with BBB could not manage with the consumers rather there was a question of trust on the information which was provided by them. (Masons Simmons, 2014). The business system which is credit is according to the factors which include all the necessary facts and complaints leading to a good effort which would solve all the complaints leading to a revised scheduling. (Wong Millington, 2014). There are specific grips to ship the orders as the importance of the consumers mainly depends on the regulation of the associations which go beyond the reports of the association. The council has been built which is ready to be non-profitable yet seeking better and high raising funds in order to manage all the services to lead to outsourcing of the product with success in the operational o bjectives. Ques3. What actions would you take to ensure ethical misconducts disaster such as the pay-for-play scheme does not happen again? Ans. To manage the organisation, there is a need to lead a subsequent step towards pointing an anomaly which would lead to misconduct and review the process. There should be serious steps taken against it and it is important for the BBB to try to exert more pressure to highlight the problem so that the problem does not affect or create another problem in the business scheduling. The points which are additional and lead to credibility of the maintenance of the reputation are that the organisations should identify the people who are acting like this and eliminate them so that such mishappenings does (Wu et al., 2014) not affect the conduct or image of a person. The case should be properly dealt managed and the rating of the franchise will surely affect the customers who will try to fix in the damage which has brought in such consequences. The complaints of the misconducts are mainly in the Los Angeles which needs to be resolved by grading the way the news are being incurred. The subseq uent rise reveals a great stage where the (Wong Millington, 2014) BBB would receive less of complaints and more of accomplishments in their task and conduct. Conclusion The concern of the salary can be non-profitable depending upon the commission rates and the business which is friendly depending upon how much fees is charged and how the customers lack the disclosure which (Ferrell Fraedrich, 2014) will have profitable impact. As per the review, BBB has been helpful to many selling websites like eBay, which is able to publish their own books for their sustenance in the work and performance. With the management of integrity and credibility, the people can easily be able to come over from the impact of ethical CSR, thereby, trying to result in a better business (Muniapan Raj, 2014) ethics, resulting in a more trustable rating system. There are certain impact which can be harmful due to the loss in integrity and the credibility which will be paid according to how the consumers are being lead. The rating of the same is given by BBB who would help the people to outshine and come out of all the faulty people strategic world. Reference Carroll, A., Buchholtz, A. (2014).Business and society: Ethics, sustainability, and stakeholder management. Cengage Learning. Ferrell, O. C., Fraedrich, J. (2014).Business ethics: Ethical decision making cases. Cengage Learning. Cheng, B., Ioannou, I., Serafeim, G. (2014). Corporate social responsibility and access to finance.Strategic Management Journal,35(1), 1-23. Dobele, A. R., Westberg, K., Steel, M., Flowers, K. (2014). An examination of corporate social responsibility implementation and stakeholder engagement: A case study in the Australian mining industry.Business Strategy and the Environment,23(3), 145-159. Dillon, P. J., Back, R. M., Manz, C. C. (2014). Authentic Corporate Social Responsibility Based on Authentic Empowerment: An Exemplary Business Leadership Case.The Journal of Values-Based Leadership,7(1), 7. Muniapan, B., Raj, S. J. (2014). Corporate Social Responsibility Communication from the Vedantic, Dharmic and Karmic Perspectives.Critical Studies on Corporate Responsibility, Governance and Sustainability,6, 337-354. Wesley, A., MacCallum, D. (2014). The Political Economy of Corporate Social Responsibility in the Resource Sector in Western Australia. A Case Study of the Proposed James Price Point LNG Precinct. InResource Curse or Cure?(pp. 59-73). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Mason, C., Simmons, J. (2014). Embedding Corporate Social Responsibility in Corporate Governance: A Stakeholder Systems Approach.Journal of Business Ethics,119(1), 77-86. Hollingworth, D., Valentine, S. (2014). Corporate Social Responsibility, Continuous Process Improvement Orientation, Organizational Commitment and turnover intentions.International Journal of Quality Reliability Management,31(6), 2-2. Mackenzie, M., Peters, M. (2014). Hospitality Managers' Perception of Corporate Social Responsibility: An Explorative Study.Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research,19(3), 257-272. Spence, L. J. (2014). 20. Business ethics and social responsibility in small firms.Handbook of Research on Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 374. Wong, R., Millington, A. (2014). Corporate social disclosures: A user perspective on assurance.Accounting, Auditing Accountability Journal,27(5), 5-5. Benn, S., Dunphy, D., Griffiths, A. (2014).Organizational change for corporate sustainability. Routledge. Montiel, I., Delgado-Ceballos, J. (2014). Defining and Measuring Corporate Sustainability Are We There Yet?.Organization Environment, 1086026614526413. Wu, L. Z., Kwan, H. K., Yim, F. H. K., Chiu, R. K., He, X. (2014). CEO Ethical Leadership and Corporate Social Responsibility: A Moderated Mediation Model.Journal of Business Ethics, 1-13.

Monday, December 2, 2019

Life Goals Essays - Computer Literacy, Digital Divide, Literacy

Life Goals My future long-term career goal is to become a part of the governments defense counsel, either by becoming a legal secretary or an attorney. I would need to attend college, pass the bar exam and become board certified in order to become an attorney. In reference to becoming a legal secretary I believe I've developed those skills through several years of hard work, and I feel I've gained enough experience to pursue this field. I believe I will be successful in becoming an attorney. I am determined to finish high school with the academic excellence required to obtain a good professional direction in the law field. I have several years of expierence in Law, Speech, Acting, and Debate. These qualities will help me to pursue questioning, and feel comfortable in the courtroom. It was difficult to find information on my career goal. I found several job opportunities, but I could not find information on the academic requirements needed to attend a 4 star law school on the internet. I had to research my information through word of mouth, and the results I received from the "job search" worksheet we did gave me a lot of needed information. My current job skills relate to my future career goals in several ways. My knowledge of computers are very useful in todays society. I am experienced in several aspects of the computer. I am literate of several computer programs such as Peachtree Accounting, Microsoft Word and Works, and Power point among several others. I have several years of experience with the internet. I took 4 years of computer classes, and I've built my own web-site. Furthermore, I consider myself very computer literate, and in todays career fields literacy is required, and a fast typing speed is encouraged. Communication and social skills are very important when dealing with customers. The happiness and satisfaction of the customer is what companies thrive their business on in order to profit, and keep up with supply and demand. Maintaining a professional attitude is very I, important when dealing with clients. Whether the client is happy or night, the needs of the customer are the most important. In High School I took several communications classes. My favorite was Law class. We had Mock-Trials, which was role playing for the students in order to get the feel of a real courtroom. I received an A in Law Class. I took Speech, Acting, Children's Theatre, Drama. I worked for a large insurance company that dealt with insurance claims, and I was surrounded by lawyers. I learned the basics of handling insurance claims, but I'd still like to be on the defense counsel. Job Comparisons "Large Downtown Firm" My current job skills relate to my future career goals in several ways. My knowledge of computers are very useful in todays society. I am experienced in several aspects of the computer.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Impact and Prevention of Inventory Fraud Essays

Impact and Prevention of Inventory Fraud Essays Impact and Prevention of Inventory Fraud Paper Impact and Prevention of Inventory Fraud Paper The Impact of inventory fraud can be expensive and affect an organizations reports. Inventory errors will not only affect the balance sheet but the Income statement as well. Errors from theft or fraud wealth the physical Inventory will misstate the costs of goods sold, gross profit, and net Income. If the losses from fraudulent are covered up, the organization will be misleading the government by not abiding by the fair disclosure responsibility, and basically guarantees unreliable ND false information within its financial documents. Prevention is the key to deter this type of fraudulent behavior. Strong controls. Policies that communicate theft will be prosecuted, and a hotlist can be introduced to this incidents. Since employees are at the heart of this problem, companies should have criminal and background checks on employees before they are hired. However, criminal and background checks do have there limitations, since the majority who steal may have never been caught. In addition, companies can also be checked to ensure that they have a valid tax id number, and that no complaints have filed with any agency such as Better Business Bureau. Random inventory checks instead of pre- planned inventory counts should be used. The inventory counts should match what is on hand to what is on record. In addition, to prevent collusion amongst employees during the inventory count the organization can change the personnel counting during this period. The shorting of shipments can be a tricky situation that may involve the supplier, delivery personnel, and the company employee. Control over the inventory should begin as soon as the inventory is received. A way to control fraud is by the use of pre-numbered receiving reports that are to be completed by the receiving department as soon as a shipment arrives. To make sure the inventory received is what is ordered, each receiving report should match the companys original purchase order for the goods. In addition, the price of goods on the purchase order, should be compared to price the vendor billed the company on the vendors Invoice. Lastly, additional security measures can be Implemented to prevent theft. For example, restricting unauthorized access, If business Is not operating the area should be locked, and when removing merchandise the use of requisition forms authorizing the removal of Items. In conclusion, Inventory fraud Is an expensive Illness that plaques companies worldwide. Inventories are essential for merchandising and manufacturing businesses. Prevention and Internal control procedures are needed to protect inventories from damage and employee and consumer theft. By genes as not being criminal, so where does it begin or where does it stop? There is no easy schemes may include management and its vendors/ suppliers. The impact of inventory fraud can be expensive and affect an organizations reports. Inventory errors will not only affect the balance sheet but the income statement as well. Errors from theft or fraud within the physical inventory will misstate the costs of goods sold, gross profit, and net income. If the losses from not abiding by the fair disclosure responsibility, and basically guarantees unreliable Prevention is the key to deter this type of fraudulent behavior. Strong controls, achieved is what is ordered, each receiving report should match the companys invoice. Lastly, additional security measures can be implemented to prevent theft. For example, restricting unauthorized access, if business is not operating the area should be locked, and when removing merchandise the use of requisition forms authorizing the removal of items. In conclusion, inventory fraud is an expensive illness that plaques companies worldwide. Inventories are essential for merchandising and manufacturing businesses. Prevention and internal control procedures are needed to protect

Saturday, November 23, 2019

The eNotes Blog A Cheaters Guide to theClassics

A Cheaters Guide to theClassics DISCLAIMER: If you are a student assigned to read any of the following classics in school, you should ABSOLUTELY read them all the way through! Not only are they classics for a reason, but thats your job as a student, and as members of the educational community we would be remiss if we didnt point that out. If you are, on the other hand, one of the 62% of adults who are simply willing to lie to make themselves appear smarter, well then this article is for you! Thats right, roughly 6 out of 10 adults claim to have read books theyve never even opened in an effort to appear more intelligent and impress others. How do they get away with it? Mostly through movie adaptations. But why rely on a directors interpretation of Great Expectations  when walking into the potentially vicious traps set by your dinner party counterparts? I mean, if you really want to get serious about appearing smarter, youll have to study with some study guides. And what a surprisewe just so happen to have some of those!   You could read the 1,225 pages this Tolstoy classic, or you could just prop it on your bookshelf at home and internally vow to get around to it one day The top ten books people claim to have read, but havent, are: 1984  by George Orwell – 26% War and Peace  by Leo Tolstoy – 19% Great Expectations  by Charles Dickens – 18% Catcher in the Rye  by J D Salinger – 15% A Passage to India  by E M Forster – 12% Lord of the Rings  by J R R Tolkein – 11% To Kill A Mockingbird  by Harper Lee – 10% Crime and Punishment  by Fyodor Dostoyevsky – 8% Pride and Prejudice  by Jane Austen – 8% Jane Eyre  by Charlotte Brontà « – 5% Titles that just missed the cut are The Bible (3%),  Homer’s Odyssey  (3%) and  Wuthering Heights  (2%). Be serious about appearing smarter: study smarter. Never walk into a dinner party unprepared again!

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Potential Benefits and Risks of Deeper Globalization for Guidia Assignment

Potential Benefits and Risks of Deeper Globalization for Guidia - Assignment Example This essay declares that globalization therefore is considered as multi-disciplinary in nature with its roots in politics, economics, technology, sociology etc. It is however, critical to understand that major emphasis of globalization is through the economic integration where economies integrate with each other through free and unrestricted trade. As a result of this trade, not only technological transfer becomes possible but more foreign direct investment also arrives. As a result of these changes, economic growth can actually quicken. This paper stresses that term globalization has emerged during 1960s however it was during so called roaring nineties that it started to take the serious public attention. Over the period of time, the early literature on globalization however gave it a connotation that globalization is actually westernization vs. the rest including nationalism etc. Post 9/11 scenarios have made this impression much stronger with globalization taking different meanings and assumptions. The emergence of rationalism as a major framework for knowledge is considered as the first element which encouraged the development of globalization. Over the period of time, rational decision making has made it more important for nations and societies to actually expand their activities in order to grow and evolve. Capitalism is another important factor which has actually made it mandatory for producers to actually look for new markets to increase their sales volumes. Under capitalist ideology, producers of the goods a nd services actually attempt to obtain more therefore in pursuit of profits, firms attempt to expand globally. (Scholte, 2002) Technological innovation is another important factor which has resulted into the globalization. Rapid changes in the communication technologies, transport as well as other technologies have allowed better integration of economies across the globe. It is however, important to note that the changes in the way capitalism have progressed and emergence of rational thinking has actually created a social order which has fostered the technological innovation. Technological innovation therefore is considered as the result of capitalist development and rational thinking. Globalization however, gained more momentum with the spread of technological innovation. Supportive regulatory framework has also resulted into the creation and speeding up of globalization also. Supportive regulatory frameworks have actually eased out the entry and exit barriers thus allowing domesti c as well as international firms to become more proactive in entering into and maintaining their presence in the global market. Supportive framework however, has been made possible only due to the economic development and r

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Mis 2200 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Mis 2200 - Essay Example Options that encourage interaction between members are preferable. Some of these options include blogs, group web sites, and team space offerings. These tools permit sharing of documents, thoughts and comments in an easy to use and access medium. The Internet has changed the way groups communicate and interact with each other. Group members who consistently use the available tools can easily contribute to the completion of classroom group assignments. Some of the benefits of using tools like a blog include enhanced group participation and immediate delivery of information to support assignments. There are no schedule constraints as group members are able to comment and share information whenever it is convenient for each individual. There are many challenges to completing classroom group work effectively and efficiently given the number of distractions and obligations group members must juggle. Group members need to be able to communicate and contribute to group assignments in an easy to use and manage forum. Technology offers a number of solutions that can assist groups with collaboration, management, and completion of

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Common Core Essay Example for Free

Common Core Essay The common core is a set of standards which were developed by state leaders along with teachers, school administrators and many other people, not the Federal Government. The common core has standards. Standards which are not curriculum. Standards that â€Å"do not tell principals how to run their schools, and they do not tell teachers how to teach. Local teachers, principals, and district administrators ultimately decide how the standards are to be met and the curriculum to be use† (Laine and Minnich). The school districts still have to choose which textbooks to use and, which curricula they wish to add and drop. The basic standards of the common core are: Aligned with college and workforce-training expectations; Rigorous in content and include the application of knowledge through higher-order skills; Built on strengths and lessons taken from state standards; Informed by standards in top-performing countries, so that all students are prepared to succeed in the global economy and society; and Evidence-based, clear, and aligned across a child’s K-12 education. The common core has many pros and cons to reforming the education system. In the Article The common core is a change for the better the authors mention that the common core provides a good foundation on what needs to be taught (Gardner and Powell). The authors also touched on the fact that students nowadays are â€Å"more mobile than ever†, families have to move around more to follow and find available jobs. With the common core all across the Country have the same standards. There is some consistency within all schools in America. If a family was to move from Maine to Nevada, it would be quite impossible to expect things to be the exact same. However, you can still have an idea of the standards and know what to expect. This is a great thing about the Common Core. Every Student this way is exposed to the same standards. Once students are mingled together in colleges and universities across the country the professors can expect almost every student to be able to do the same things, to a degree. Not to say that every student knows the  exact same co ntent, however they will all have graduated high school with the same skills. Skills that may be taught in a variety of styles, none the less resulting in the same skills. The common core requires teachers to be very specific and hand out rubrics, stating exactly the quality of work that is expected. This eliminates the confusion that can arouse from complicated projects or open research topics. The students will know exactly what the teacher is requiring of them. Ultimately making it easier on the students to provide what the teacher wants and getting the highest grade possible if the students puts in the effort required to meet the expectations. Effort: defined as â€Å"an earnest or strenuous attempt† by, is where a problem arises in the common core. The common core standard â€Å"Rigorous in content and include the application of knowledge through higher-order skills† is asking 21st century students to put in lots of effort, they can’t ask Siri to write their English paper or do their history project. Most high school aged students in the United States are not going to put in the required effort to achieve rigorous assignments. I know that when I was in high school my attitude was ‘if I wait to the last minute it only takes a minute’. That’s not because I was swamped with assignments or didn’t understand it. It was because I would rather be doing anything else, after having spent all day in classrooms with new information being drilled into my head. The absolute last thing I wanted to do was go home and spend more hours on homework. Making high school more rigo rous is going to prevent kids from being kids. Students in the United States are less motivated to learn and value education less and less. Stephen Krashen says that another problem with very rigorous assignments is â€Å"CCSS are so demanding that in English language arts classes, educators and students will have little time for anything not directly linked to the standards† (Krashen). I do not quite agree with this statement because the standards are not the curriculum being taught, just the way it is being taught. Teachers and schools have some free space to spend as much time as they feel necessary to focus on aspects they feel more important. The common core has pros and cons, just like anything in life. One set of standards isn’t going to please everyone in the United States. My personal opinion is that the common core has good intentions, but may be a bit unrealistic. If every school in America was teaching the same skills to the same degree, all students would have the same experiences entering college. There are 50 states with thousands of different schools in each states. Within those thousands of schools there are teachers who all have their own style of teaching. Not to mention the millions of students that all learn a little differently at a different pace. What are the odds that every state school, and teacher are able to provide every student with the exact same skills, using the exact same standards? There are good intentions behind it, and the United States can give it a chance, but I feel as though it may be unrealistic. Works Citied Fine, Sarah. Moving Forward With The Common Core. Education Week 30.8 (2010): 18-19. Professional Development Collection. Web. 16 Mar. 2014. Gardner, Nancy S. Powell, Rod. The Common Core Is A Change For The Better. Phi Delta Kappan 95.4 (2013): 49-53. Professional Development Collection. Web. 16 Mar. 2014. Krashen, Stephen. THE COMMON CORE. (Cover Story). Knowledge Quest 42.3 (2014): 36-45. Professional Development Collection. Web. 16 Mar. 2014. Richard, Laine, and Chris Minnich. Common Core: Setting the Record Straight. Education Week 32.36 (2013): Web. 16 Mar. 2014

Friday, November 15, 2019

Essay on The Crucible: Motivations for the Trials :: Essay on The Crucible

Motivations for the Trials in The Crucible  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚   In The Crucible by Arthur Miller, the madness of the Salem witch trials is explored in great detail. There are many theories as to why the witch trials came about, the most popular of which is the girls' suppressed childhoods. However, there were other factors as well, such as Abigail Williams' affair with John Proctor, the secret grudges that neighbors held against each other, and the physical and economic differences between the citizens of Salem Village. From a historical viewpoint, it is known that young girls in colonial Massachusetts were given little or no freedom to act like children. They were expected to walk straight, arms by their sides, eyes slightly downcast, and their mouths were to be shut unless otherwise asked to speak. It is not surprising that the girls would find this type of lifestyle very constricting. To rebel against it, they played pranks, such as dancing in the woods, listening to slaves' magic stories and pretending that other villagers were bewitching them. The Crucible starts after the girls in the village have been caught dancing in the woods. As one of them falls sick, rumors start to fly that there is witchcraft going on in the woods, and that the sick girl is bewitched. Once the girls talk to each other, they become more and more frightened of being accused as witches, so Abigail starts accusing others of practicing witchcraft. The other girls all join in so that the blame will not be placed on them. In the novel, Abigail starts the accusations by saying, "I go back to Jesus; I kiss his hand. I saw Sarah Good with the Devil! I saw Goody Osburn with the Devil! I saw Bridget Bishop with the Devil!" Another girl, Betty, continues the cry with, "I saw George Jacobs with the Devil! I saw Goody Howe with the Devil!" From here on, the accusations grow and grow until the jails overflow with accused witches. It must have given them an incredible sense of power when the whole town of Salem listened to their words and believed each and every accusation. After all, children were to be seen and not heard in Puritan society, and the newfound attention was probably overwhelming. In Act Three of The Crucible, the girls were called before the judges to defend themselves against the claims that they were only acting.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Clinical Reasoning: Combining Research and Knowledge to Enhance Client Care

Making sound and client-centered clinical decisions in an area that demands accountability and evidence-based practice requires not only scientific knowledge, but also a deep knowledge of the practice of one’s profession and of what it means to be human in the world of combined strength and vulnerability that is health care. Every clinician must understand the importance of applying best research evidence to client care, the essence of evidence–based practice, to improve the overall quality of healthcare. Research continues to find that using evidence-based guidelines in practice, informed through research evidence, improves patients’ outcomes (Dykes et al, 2005). The literature is replete with definitions of evidence-based practice. Simply stated, evidence-based practice is the process of applying research to practice. Originating from the medical field in 1991, the term evidence-based medicine was established to ensure that medical research was systematically evaluated in a manner that could â€Å"inform medicine and save lives and that is superior to simply looking at the results of individual clinical trials† (Wampold & Bhati, 2004). An evidence-based practice is considered any practice that has been established as effective through scientific research according to a set of explicit criteria (Drake, et al, 2001). The term evidence-based practice is also used to describe a way of practicing, or an approach to practice. For example, evidence-based medicine has been described as â€Å"the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients† (Sackett, Rosenberg, Gray, et al, 1996). Evidence-based medicine is further described as the â€Å"integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values† (Sackett, Straus, Richardson, Rosenberg, & Haynes, 2000). Rather than a relationship based on asymmetrical information and authority, in evidence-based practice the relationship is characterized by a sharing of information and of decision-making. The clinician does not decide what is best for the client, but rather the clinician provides the client with up-to-date information about what the best-evidence is regarding the client’s situation, what options are available, and likely outcomes. With this information communicated in culturally and linguistically appropriate ways clients are supported to make decisions for themselves whenever and to the extent possible. According to Burns and Grove evidence-based practice is nothing more than a problem-solving approach to the care that we deliver that takes into consideration the best evidence from research studies in combination with clinical expertise and the patient’s preferences and values (Burns & Grove, 2004). Pierce described in â€Å"Evidence-Based Practice in Rehabilitation Nursing† that â€Å"making patient-care decisions with current information and one’s clinical expertise enhances the ability to provide the best practice†. The author added that â€Å"evidence-based practice is a process that begins with knowing what clinical questions to ask, how to find the best evidence, and how to clinically appraise the evidence for validity and applicability to the particular care situation†. Then, the best evidence must be applied by a clinician with expertise in considering the patient’s unique values and needs. As stated by Law& MacDermit, â€Å"evidence for practice is not only about using research evidence, but using it in partnership with excellent clinical reasoning and paying close attention to the client’s stated goals, needs, and values†(Law & MacDermit, 2008). Although the terms best practices and evidence-based practice are often used interchangeably, these terms have different meanings. Evidence-based practice can be a best practice, but a best practice is not necessarily evidence-based; best practices are simply ideas and strategies that work, such as programs, services, or interventions that produce positive client outcomes or reduce costs (Ling, 2000). In order to bring research and knowledge into someone’s practice, it’s necessary to think critically. Becoming a critical thinker is a prerequisite of becoming an evidence-based clinician. But what is critical thinking? Critical thinking involves the application of knowledge and experience to identify patient problems and to direct clinical judgments and actions that result in positive patient outcomes. Critical reflection requires that the thinker examine the underlying assumptions and radically question or doubt the validity of arguments, assertions, and even facts of the case. Critical reflective skills are also essential for clinicians; however, these skills are not sufficient for the clinician who must decide how to act in particular situations and avoid patient injury (Wheatley DN, 1999). Critical reasoning is a process whereby knowledge and experience are applied in considering multiple possibilities to achieve the desired goals (Noll et al, 2001) while considering the patient’s situation (Fowler, 1997). According to Simmons it’s a process where both inductive and deductive cognitive skills are used (Simmons et al, 2003). Each client’s problem is unique, a product of many factors, including the client’s physical health, lifestyle, culture, relationship with family and friends, living environment, and experiences. Thus, a health care professional does not always have a clear picture of the client’s needs when first meeting a client. Because no two clients have identical problems, a clinician is always challenged to observe each client closely, search for and examine ideas and inferences about client problems, consider scientific principles relating to the problems, recognize the problems and develop an approach to client’s care. When clinicians make healthcare decisions for a population or group of clients using research evidence, this can be described as evidence-based healthcare practice. Another prerequisite to becoming an evidence-based clinician is to be a reflective professional. Reflection is an important aspect of critical thinking. As described by Miller & Babcock reflection is â€Å"the process of purposefully thinking back or recalling a situation to discover its purpose or meaning. With reflection, a clinician seeks to understand the relationships between theoretical concepts and real-life situations. The importance of reflecting on what you are doing, as part of the learning process, has been emphasised by many researchers. The concept of reflective practice was introduced by Donald Schon in his book named â€Å"The Reflective Practitioner† edited in 1983, however, the concepts underlying reflective practice are much older. John Dewey was among the first to write about Reflective Practice with his exploration of experience, interaction and reflection (Dewey, 1933). Schon described the concept as a critical process in refining one's artistry or craft in a specific discipline. The author recommended reflective practice as a way for beginners in a discipline to recognize consonance between their own individual practices and those of successful practitioners. He also stated that reflective practice â€Å"involves thoughtfully considering one's own experiences in applying knowledge to practice while being coached by professionals in the discipline† (Schon, 1996). As it was earlier said, there are a few steps toward evidence-based practice and rehabilitation. The first and the most important step in evidence-based practice is to determine a well-designed question that not only affects quality care but is of interest to the rehabilitation clinician and is encountered in practice on a regular basis. A useful ramework for formulating an appropriate clinical question is suggested by Sackett & colleagues. (Sackett, 2000). They proposed that a good clinical question should have at least three and sometimes four components: Patient or Problem; Intervention; Comparison (not mandatory); Outcome of interest. This has been referred to as the PICO (Patient /Problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) or PIO (Patient / Problem, Intervention, Outc ome) approach. The question usually comes from diverse sources. As stated by Pierce, â€Å"the most common source is the rehabilitation practice itself†. Once the question in searching of evidence was formulated, the next and probably the most important step is to find the relevant evidence in the literature that will help in answering the question. It can be difficult to distinguish relevant from irrelevant information and to decide which source contains the most credible information and research data. Using research findings in practice improves care. Research utilization occurs at three levels—instrumental, conceptual, and symbolic: 1. Instrumental utilization is the direct, explicit application of knowledge gained from research to change practice (Gills & Jackson, 2002). 2. Conceptual utilization refers to the use of findings to enhance one’s understanding of a problem or issue in nursing (Gills & Jackson, 2002). 3. Symbolic utilization is the use of evidence to change minds of other people, usually decision makers (Profetto-McGrath, Hesketh, Lang, & Estabrooks, 2003). According to Hameedullah & Khalid, â€Å"all evidence must be appraised in the following areas: validity, importance and applicability to the clinical scenario† (Hameedullah & Khalid, 2008). Performing the previous steps will result in the appearance of a concrete piece of evidence which should be valid and important for the question in consideration. Now is the time to combine the clinical expertise and experience with the evidence generated to improve the outcome of specific client scenarios. It is also important to remember client’s values and circumstances while making such decisions. The evidence regarding both efficacy and risks should be fully discussed with the client in order to allow them to make an informed decision. This approach allows the formation of a decision in consultation with the client in the presence of good evidence and is consistent with the fundamental principle of evidence-based practice i. e. ntegration of good evidence with clinical expertise and patient values (Hameedullah & Khalid, 2008). Whether the intervention was appropriate and resulted in good clinical outcome for a certain group of clients, in a particular clinician’s hands, will only be answered by careful prospective outcome research. As Strauss and Sackett have suggested, we need to ask whether we are formulating answerable qu estions, finding good evidence quickly, effectively appraising the evidence, and integrating clinical expertise and patient’s values with the evidence in a way that leads to a rational, acceptable management strategy (Straus & Sackett, 1998). Although the importance of research-based practice was identified decades ago and has gradually been adopted by rehabilitation professions, there are a number of challenges for clinicians who are attempting to be use research to aid in clinical decision-making. According to Bohannon and Leveau most challenges can be grouped under one of three areas: research methods, clinicians’ skill, and administrative factors (Bohannon & Leveau, 1998). The research procedures of randomly assigning patients to an experimental or control group, using standardized outcomes measures that may not have real-world relevance, and the difficulty of blinding investigators and clients to the research procedures all make research results difficult to be implemented, interpreted and utilized clinically (Ritchie, 2001). Evidence-based practice requires clinicians to read current research literature, understand research methodology, and incorporate best evidence into practice as appropriate. As Sumison noted in one of his studies, it may be difficult to use in client-centered practice. The research literature may be difficult to access and relevant information is often not compiled in one place (Sumison, 1997). Interpreting and implementing research evidence also requires clinical skill, judgement, and experience. Deciding what constitutes evidence that justifies a change in practice can be challenging and the opportunity for bias exists at every stage of the process as Pomeroy observed in one of his articles from 2003 (Pomeroy, 2003). There are many other factors that present challenges to clinicians who are attempting to use evidence to guide their practice. Time constraints are almost universally identified as a primary limiting factor. Schreiber and Stern stated that â€Å"clinicians refer to pressures of today’s health care environment and administrators’ emphasis on productivity as factors that directly inhibit their ability to seek out, gather, read, and integrate cientific information relevant to daily practice† (Schreiber and Stern, 2005). The concept of evidence-based practice is of great importance for rehabilitation and physiotherapy to allow for increased insight for all involved including patients, clinicians, third-party payers, and government and health care organizations, into the clinical decision-making processes. The purpose of promoting this paradigm is optimum quality of care with conservation of professional autonomy.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Corporation Rules and Regulations Essay

The group had been liable for 70% of Australian asbestos consumption. However, in February 2007, ASIC had started to impose civil proceedings against James Hardie, the directors and the officers, as ASIC alleged that JHIL and both executive and non-executive had breached their statutory duty. This short research report had outlined the role of ASIC and various penalty that ASIC can impose under Corporation Act 2001. Besides that, we will also discuss the position that ASIC had held from 2004 until current date in relation to the directors of Hardie group. At last, I had provided a summary of the ASIC’s media release that had been established on 13 May 2011, and indentified the element that ASIC is hoping the High Court to uphold. The Role of ASIC: The Australian Security and Investment Commission (ASIC) is a commonwealth statutory corporation that set up by Australian Securities and Investments Commission Act, and it is a regulator which in charge of monitoring the Australia’s Corporation, products, markets and financial services (Lipton, Herzberg and Welsh 2012, p. 736). On the other hand, ASIC is also a commonwealth authority that is responsible for governing the Corporation Act. ASIC Act provided that ASIC owned such powers and function that endowed by the corporation legislation to ASIC. Thus, what exactly is the corporation legislation means? Under Section 5(1), they had interpreted the term ‘corporation legislation’ to mean the ASIC Act and the Corporation Act (Baxt, Finnane and Harris 2012). Besides that, ASIC also owned the power to initiate prosecution for criminal offences or apply for civil penalty orders if they believed that there’s a contravention of the law. ASIC is also able to ban a director from managing a company for a certain period if they contravened their general duties. For instance, in the case of ASIC v Stephen William Vizard [2005], the court held that as a director of Telstra, Mr. Vizard has contravened the Corporation Act: Section 183, the duty of director to use the information in an improper purpose, and gain advantage for himself, thus, the court order pecuniary penalties and a disqualification order against Mr. Vizard (Price Waterhouse Coopers 2012). As a result of that, ASIC actually played a significant role in relation to initiate prosecution against companies directors for misconduct in order to ensure corporation and those related parties are complied with the corporation legislation. Now, let us look at the duties of a corporation’s directors under Corporation Act and what penalty can ASIC can imposed if the directors do not comply with the Corporation Act. The duties of a company’s director: The term ‘director’ is a person who is appointed to manage control or govern the affairs of a corporation. Under Section 9 definitions, the term directors extend to a person who is not formally appointed as a director, but they act as a director or whose instruction or whishes are followed customarily (Baxt, Finnane and Harris 2012). In chapter 2D. 1 of the Corporation Act, from Section 180 until Section 184, it dedicated that the principle duties of a director. They can be listed as followed: †¢Section 180 stated that a director or other officer of a corporation must exercise their power and discharge the duties in a manner with care and diligence (Mclnnes Wilson Lawyers 2011). Section 181 declared that, a director should exercise their power and discharge their duties in good faith where it’s in the best interest of the corporation and for a proper purpose (Mclnnes Wilson Lawyers 2011). †¢Section 182 stated that, a director must not improperly use their position to obtain an advantage for themselves or other or cause lesion to the company. (Armstrong Lawyers 2007). Having understood the general duties of a company’s director, we can now look at the penalties that ASIC could impose if the directors had breach their duty or do not comply with the Corporation Act 2001. The penalties: As we mentioned before, the Australian Securities and Investment (ASIC) is a national body that’s responsible to govern the corporation legislation and securities regulation in Australia. ASIC obtained the power to investigate potential contravention of the corporation law and significant penalties can be imposed on the directors who had failed to perform their duties. The section of the Corporation Act attracting civil penalties under Section 1317J (1), ASIC can apply to the court for a: †¢Ã¢â‚¬ËœDeclaration of contravention’ †¢Ã¢â‚¬ËœPecuniary penalties ‘ †¢Ã¢â‚¬ËœCompensation order’ (Baxt, Finnane and Harris 2012) 1)Pecuniary penalty order: The court may order a pecuniary penalty of up to $200,000 to a director who breaches his duty under Corporation Act. Once the declaration of a contravention by the person had been made (Section 1317E), and the contravention is a corporation penalty (Price Waterhouse Coopers 2012). (2)Compensation order: Under Section 1317H, the court may order a person to compensate the company where loss is suffered because the person had contravened a corporation civil penalty provision (Price Waterhouse Coopers 2012). (3)Disqualification from managing a company: The Corporation Act Section 206C conferred ASIC the power to disqualify the directors from managing a company for a certain periods of time due to the contravention of their general duties (Price Waterhouse Coopers 2012). This concept can be illustrated by the following case: ASIC v Vines [2006], it had been found that Mr. Vines had breached his duty of care and diligence by misleading and an inadequate disclosure of material information to the board of directors and failure to ensure the statement was incorrect. The board was relying on Mr. Vines to make complete disclosure to all material matters. The court held that, as the director had breach their duties of care and diligence b providing fault statement, thus, he had breach civil penalty provisions. The court decided that, Mr. Vines will have to receive a 3 years disqualification, pay a pecuniary penalty of $100,000 and 22% of the ASIC cost (Price Waterhouse Coopers 2012). ASIC’s position that held from 2004-2012: The position of ASIC held from 2004-2012 in relation to the directors of James Hardie case had not altered. Why would I say that? Below is the details of ASIC’s position in relation to the directors of James Hardie: On he 27th February 2004, the NSW government had authorized Mr. David Jackson to conduct a special commission of Inquiry into James Hardie newly founded foundation-Medical Research and Compensation Foundation (Australian Council of Trade Union 2007). At first instance, it had been found out that, the foundation was in fact had a nearly 1. 5 billion of shortfall, and a media release saying that the MRCF is ‘fully founded’ to meet all the current and future asbestos claims to the Australia Securities Exchange through the approval of the board directors during the directors meeting. Thus, ASIC had alleged that JHIL had made a misleading and deceptive statement. As a result of that, it had raised a principle issue for the board of directors of JHIL, whether or not they had knowingly voted in favor of releasing the ‘misleading’ announcement to ASX (Alcorn 2011). In addition, the sub issues that had been raised are under Section 180(1), was a general counsel can be treated as an officer? The Original Decision: In April 2009, ASIC held that all of the executive, non-executive and company officer had breached their duty of care by approving the media statement to be made in ASX. In particularly, ASIC had alleged that, the company chief executive officer and company secretary or general counsel, Mr. Macdonald and Mr. Shafron had breached the director’s duty of care and diligence under Section 180(1) as they had failed to advice the board to disclose the DOCI information to ASX (Hargovan 2009). Thus the court had imposed penalties on both of them: †¢Mr. Macdonald was disqualified from managing a company for 15 years and a pecuniary penalty of $350,000. According to the Corporation Act 2001, Section 180(1), an officer obtain the power in decision making which affected the whole or substantial part of a business, thus, Mr, Shafron had a positive obligation to advise the board of the disclosure of DOCI. In relation, he was given a disqualification order for 7 years and a pecuniary penalty of $75,000 (Baxt, Finnane and Harris 2012). †¢Mr. Morley had been banned from the management for 5 years and paid a pecuniary penalty of $35,000. †¢However, all of the seven former non-executives directors were disqualified from management for 5 years each and a pecuniary penalty of $30,000. The Appeal: In December 2010, the NSW court of Appeal overturned the finding in relation to liabilities and penalties of the non-executives directors, the CFO and secretary general counsel of James Hardie Industries Ltd as ASIC had failed to prove that the ASX media statement was approved by the board, and as the appellate court had established that some of the directors had acted honestly without any intention to gain benefit from themselves, which is under Section 1317 of the Corporation Act 2001 (Hargovan 2011). Thus, amendment had been made in relation to lessen the liabilities and penalty of the directors and officer can be found in later section (summary of media release). Nevertheless, it’s worth noting that Mr. Shafron, Mr. Morley and ASIC had filled application for special leave to appeal the decision of the Court of Appeal. In May 2011, ASIC had issued media release that stated that they had granted a special leave to appeal the James Hardie decision. ASIC didn’t change their position in relation to the directors of James Hardie and they are still seeking to uphold the finding that the directors of James Hardie had breached their duty by approving the ASX announcement made by the company (ASIC 2011). Media Release’s Summary: This article talk about the ASIC had granted a special leave from the High Court to appeal the decision of the New South Wales Court of Appeal in the James Hardie matter in relation to the former non-executive directors and the former company secretary and general counsel of James Hardie Industries Limited. The ASIC has actually filled his application in the High Court on 14 January 2011. The purpose of ASIC to strive for a special leave is they are seeking clarification about the nature, content and scope of ASIC’s obligation, while the Court of Appeal had concluded that ASIC had breached their duty of fairness, as they failed to call the witness Mr. Rob in the trial judge of James Hardie case (ASIC 2011). The failure to call the witness, Mr.Rob had make a tremendous impact on the decision of the court, as they cannot attest the non-executive directors had voted in favor of the ASX announcement’s draft (Thomas 2011). As a result of that, ASIC is hoping the High Court to uphold the finding if the trial judge that the directors had acted in favor in regards of the ASX announcement made by the company (ASIC 2011). Decision: As a result of that, in August 2009, the NSW Supreme Court had imposed pecuniary penalties on JHIL and all the non-executive officers and executive officers, plus a disqualification order on them for an extensive period.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Quick Guide to Command-Line Arguments in Ruby

Quick Guide to Command-Line Arguments in Ruby Many Ruby scripts have no text or graphical interfaces. They simply run, do their job and then exit. To communicate with these scripts in order to change their behavior, command-line arguments must be used. The command line is the standard mode of operation for UNIX commands, and since Ruby is used widely on UNIX and UNIX-like systems (such as Linux and macOS), its pretty standard to encounter this type of program. How to Provide Command-Line Arguments Ruby script arguments are passed to the Ruby program by the shell, the program that  accepts commands (such as bash) on the terminal. On the command-line, any text following the name of the script is considered a command-line argument. Separated by spaces, each word or string will be passed as a separate argument to the Ruby program.   The following example shows the proper syntax to use to launch the test.rb Ruby script from a command-line with the arguments test1 and test2. $ ./test.rb test1 test2 You may encounter a situation in which you need to pass an argument to a Ruby program but theres a space in the command. It seems impossible at first since the shell separates arguments on spaces, but there is a provision for this. Any arguments in double quotes will not be separated. The double quotes are removed by the shell before passing it to the Ruby program. The following example passes a single argument to the test.rb Ruby script, test1 test2: $ ./test.rb test1 test2 How to Use Command-Line Arguments In your Ruby programs, you can access any command-line arguments passed by the shell with the ARGV special variable. ARGV is an Array variable which holds, as strings, each argument passed by the shell. This program iterates over the ARGV array and prints out its contents: #!/usr/bin/env ruby ARGV.each do|a|   Ã‚  puts Argument: #{a} end The following is an excerpt of a bash session launching this script (saved as the file test.rb) with a variety of arguments: $ ./test.rb test1 test2 three four Argument: test1 Argument: test2 Argument: three four

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Do Longer SAT Essays Really Score Higher

Do Longer SAT Essays Really Score Higher SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Rumor has it, the longer your SAT essay, the higher your score. Could this be true? Does essay length affect your score? Let's unpack this belief and talk about the best strategies for scoring high on the SAT essay. Rumor Has It... When Milo Beckman was 14 and attending Stuyvesant High School in New York City, he started to suspect that the key to a high score on the SAT essay was simply filling up all the lines. He himself had already taken the SAT twice, and he found that his longer essay got a higher score, even though he thought it was inferior and contained lots of inaccuracies. To investigate this, Milo asked students at his high school to report their scores and the number of lines they wrote on their essays. Out of 5 essays, he found that the longer ones almost always received higher scores. Milo concluded that the more you write, the better you score. Milo Beckman hasn't been the only person to come to this conclusion. Lee Perelman, former director of writing across curriculum at MIT, holds to his position that the more words you put on the page, the higher your score will be. He also has some other tips for guaranteeing a high score that we'll take a look at below. To read more about Milo and Lee's studies, check out this intriguing article. What does the College Board think? So what does College Board have to say about these claims? Unsurprisingly, they're not having it. According to College Board, length often correlates with quality, but it does not in and of itself predict a good score. Instead, longer essays often have well developed arguments supported by nuanced examples. Quality, not quantity, they insist, is what the SAT essay is all about. So what does College Board think it takes to score a 12? And what are our suggestions for tackling the SAT essay? Let's take a look at the best strategies, but first, a quick review of how the essay is scored. How Is the Essay Scored? The highest score you can achieve on the SAT essay is a 12. The lowest is 2 (or 0, I suppose, if you were to leave it completely blank!). Two graders will read your essay and score it from 1 to 6. If they have very different opinions on your score, then a third reader will be brought in to give her input. Then these scores are added together. College Board says that its graders base their scores on five main domains: The development of a point of view supported by appropriate examples and effective evidence. Organization, coherence, and logical progression of ideas. Skillful language with a varied vocabulary. Variety in sentence structure. Good grammar, syntax, and mechanics. An essay that achieves a 6 is strong in all these areas and almost free of errors. Lower grades are progressively weaker in their points of view, supporting evidence, organization, vocabulary, sentence variety, and grammatical accuracy. Do these criteria seem easier said than done? Here we detail 15 key tips you need to know to fulfill these expectations and score highly on the SAT essay. You'll notice that none of these criteria mentions essay length. According to College Board,an essay does not necessarily need to fill all the pages or be five paragraphs to be insightful, use skillful language, or develop a point of view. The testmakers also stress that students should read the entire assignment given to them, including the extra reading material, which is usually a quote. As you saw above, Milo Beckman and Lee Perelman think otherwise. So what do we think about all these tips and strategies - should your essay be as long as you can make it? Or do they? With these strategies, the SAT essay might start to feel very simple indeed! How to Score Highly On the Essay Write a Lot Milo and Lee have a point - generally speaking, longer essays do score better. However, length really doesn't guarantee a high score if you don't write skillfully, develop a point of view, and use 2 to 3 well thought-out, relevant, and persuasive examples. You want to use all the strategies listed in this article to guarantee a high score. These approaches, in turn, will help facilitate your writing a long essay that merits a high score. You may argue, "But what if I can achieve all those things in less sentences?" I would say, it's great that you can be so concise, but on the SAT, less is not more. More is more. Check out our best tips on How to Score a 12 on the SAT Essay here.I'll go over a few of these strategies below, with some links throughout for you to read more in-depth advice. Pick a Side Lee Perelman stresses that students should always pick a side when answering the prompt, and I tend to agree. This doesn't mean that nuanced, middle ground essays can't score well. However, it is much more challenging to argue well for both sides in such a short, pressure-packed time frame. Even if you don't have a strong, passionate feeling on the prompt you're given - make it slightly easier on yourself and choose one side. No one is going to hold you to this opinion in the future. It's more about showing you can develop and support a strong point of view through writing, rather than revealing how you personally feel aboutthis topic or that topic. The SAT uses 6 types of essay prompts again and again. Read about the 6 types here, along with examples!And for the complete list of SAT essay prompts, this article has everything you need to know. Use Tried and True Structure Again, you only have 25 minutes! Don't try to awe the graders with postmodern literary experimentation or a rap song. Stick to the 5 paragraph structure - introduction, three paragraphs with supporting examples, and conclusion. Your introduction should close with your thesis statement, and your conclusion should have a strong last line that sums everything up with a punch. You can see how using this structure relates to writing a long essay - a true five paragraph essay, with 5 to 7 sentences per paragraph, should just about fill up all the available pages you're allotted in your test booklet. For a step-by-step breakdown of exactly how to write the SAT essay, examine this article here. Use Smooth Transitions and Varied Sentence Structure Both your individual sentences and general ideas should flow smoothly and logically. Transitions words like "furthermore, additionally, alternatively, similarly, therefore, because of this, for example," and many others, can help connect sentences, paragraphs, and concepts. On a similar note, you don't want every sentence to start with a simple 'subject-verb' construction: "I think, I said, I had," over and over again, for instance. Mixing up your sentence structure will help your essay read smoothly. This will probably happen naturally as you write, and you can improve by practicing and paying attention to sentence structure as you read books, news articles, and magazines in your day to day. These complex and varied sentence structures will also contribute to your writing a long SAT essay. Have Gos Your SAT essay will achieve the expected length if you are able to provide specific, thoughtful examples to support your point of view. But what if your mind goes blank during the actual test? To help avoid this worst-case scenario, you should show up with some go-to examples on hand. This article has some great examples of literary, historical, and current events examples that can be used to support a wide range of different arguments. Again, complex examples that you understand well will help you develop a full, long, five paragraph essay. As Milo Beckman and Lee Perelman suggested, you don't have to worry too much about accuracy, either! Pace Yourself You may be worrying that you can't fill up the essay pages in such a short amount of time. This is where practice and training is key. Your hand might ache and feel ready to fall off by the end of the 25 minute essay section, but you'll be able to finish the essay in time if you hit the ground running. How to structure your essay time: 3-4 minutes planning and structuring your essay 15-18 minutes drafting 2-3 minutes at the end to read over your essay and revise. As long as you do some serious prep, you can spend the majority of your time drafting,not staring at a blank page. This should be more than enough to achieve to create a nuanced, well developed, and long SAT essay. But seriously, are longer essays better? So Is a Longer Essay Better? For the most part, I would agree with Milo and Lee that longer essays do tend to garner higher scores on the SAT. However, they need to incorporate all those other elements, too - a well developed argument, detailed examples, skillful language, and logical organization. All of these elements help facilitate writing a longer essay, so they really go hand in hand. While you don't have a lot of time to produce this work, you can prep for it by using these tips and strategies and practicing leading up to the SAT. Writing is a skill like any other. It's not a fixed thing, like you're good at writing or you're not - instead, you can grow your skills and get better with practice. As you're prepping, maybe you can even ask a friend, family member, or teacher to "grade" your essay and give you feedback for improvement. After all your preparation and these strategies, you should be able to craft a clear, lengthy essay that scores highly on the SAT. What's Next? Are you deciding between the new SAT and the old SAT? Read about all the differences between the two tests here so you know what to expect. Is the essay on the new SAT any different from previous essays? We break down the new SAT essay here. Are you aiming for a perfect score? This 2400 scorer explains how you can achieve the highest score, too. Want to get serious about improving your SAT score? We have the leading online SAT prep program that will raise your score by 240+ points, guaranteed. Exclusive to our program, we have an expert SAT instructor grade each of your SAT essays and give you customized feedback on how to improve your score. This can mean an instant jump of 80 points on the Writing section alone. Check out our 5-day free trial and sign up for free: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Tweet Rebecca Safier About the Author Rebecca graduated with her Master's in Adolescent Counseling from the Harvard Graduate School of Education. 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Sunday, November 3, 2019

Wind energy in Washington Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Wind energy in Washington - Essay Example This brief one page paper will seek to consider both the positive and negative aspects of wind turbine arrays and the means by which the communities that house them integrate with their presence. As has previously been noted, the rate of growth and expansion of renewable energy has skyrocketed within the last few years. As such, the prevalence and use of wind power in various populated regions around the United States has also increased. Although these alternative sources of energy account for less than 1% of current energy needs within the United States, they are nonetheless visible and provide a stark contrast to the otherwise unmolested natural environment that oftentimes existed prior to their installation. Although many environmentalists are happy to have such wind farms in operation, there is a strong level of pushback that exists with regards to the adulteration of key environment as well as a definite contingent of individuals that view such wind farms as something of an eyesore. Conversely, other environmentalists view alternative energy as a necessary means of preserving the planet and are willing to relinquish some aesthetic beauty for progress (Henderson 1). Although both sides have a valid concern, it is the belief of this author that the environmentalist seeking to promote the use of alternative energy are the ones that have the stronger point; both morally and logically speaking. Due to the fact that renewable energy provides nearly resource neutral power production, it should be in the best interests of all involved to increase the means of production for this particular type of energy, on mountaintops or in fields in prairies etc. Henderson, John. "The Big Debate | Puget Sound Off." Puget Sound Off | empower, encourage SOUNDING OFF in your community. N.p., 25  Oct.  2012. Web. 11  Feb.  2013.

Friday, November 1, 2019

Data Analysis Report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Data Analysis Report - Essay Example Subjective norms refer to the beliefs about how other individuals in the society will perceive the particular behaviour whereas perceived behavioural control is characterized by the person’s perceptions with regards to their own ability in performing the specific behaviour. It has been considered that a more positive attitude and subjective norm along with a stronger behavioural control can significantly increase the person’s intentions of carrying out the behaviour (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975). The application of the theory of reasoned action in various studies has shown the relevance of each of the variables as explained by the model. The findings of Ryu and SooCheong (2006) showed how subjective norms were insignificantly related to tourist intentions with regards to local cuisine whereas customer attitudes had a significant impact on behavioural intentions. Personal beliefs also had a positive impact on the intentions of customers. Therefore, it is of great importance that efficient strategies in marketing should be carried out, especially in yielding positive outcomes on tourist attitudes towards local cuisine. Bellman et al (2009) also found out that, among female shoppers, their attitudes along with subjective norms helped influence behavioural intentions when purchasing products. ... In order to measure the perceptions of customers regarding the quality of services, their expectations can be compared with the actual delivery of services. Five dimensions were proposed- reliability that refers to the employees’ ability of delivering consistent services; responsiveness that refers to the employees’ ability to provide timely assistance to their customers; empathy which is demonstrated through special care and attention for customers; assurance which is the ability of employees to establish trust and confidence among customers; and tangibles that refer to the physical surroundings and resources. It has been asserted that when customers are satisfied with services, they may perceive these to have high quality (Parasuraman et al 1985) or vice versa. Other researchers such as Bolton and Drew (1991) had been in agreement with this notion and asserted that customer satisfaction is associated with service quality, although there have been dissimilar views on t he relationship between these two concepts. Thus, it is of great importance that organisations and researchers alike be able to effectively identify the relationship between customer satisfaction and the dimensions of service quality. Customer loyalty has also been shown to be related to perceived service quality; this form of loyalty is characterized by the attitudes demonstrated by the customers regarding repeat purchases and patronization of product. Several service quality dimensions, such as empathy, responsiveness, and reliability have all been proven to influence loyalty among customers (Caruana, 2002; Ehigie, 2006; Ndubisi, 2006; Nguyen and LeBlanc, 2001). Yu Sum and Hui (2007) also concluded that perceptions of service quality can further be influenced by the price

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Strategic Management Week 2 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Strategic Management Week 2 - Assignment Example Constantly, industry players are putting in place marketing policies and strategies that aim at making them the preferred options of customers. As a result of this, the use of competitive advantage has become a very importance concept in the health care sector (Shaw and Kenny, 2007). This notwithstanding, Porter and Teisberg (2004) do not seem pleased with the current state of competition. Reading through the article of Porter and Teisberg (2004), there is so much that can be agreed with the two authors. This is because in a study by Department of Health (2006), it was noted that most of the forms of growths that are experienced in the healthcare sector due to the competition are those that bring personal gain to investors. What this means is that the current state of competition has focused on profit making for business owners, leaving out the core needs and expected improvement that the patient is expected to receive. The call for a redefinition of competition in the healthcare sector will therefore be agreed with. It is high time industry players started focusing their competition on who brings value to the customer. Unfortunately, the customer does not always have the luxury of choosing to do business with a healthcare provider who guarantees value. This is because of how critical some health conditions can be (Ginter, Duncan and Swayne, 2013). This means that the service providers must take up this task of redefining their competition. The cost of health care plays very important role in determining the kind of service outcome that will be received from service delivery (Harris & Lenox, 2013). From a much generalised perspective, Shaw and Kenny (2007) argued that once the cost of healthcare goes up the quality of service delivery must also go up. This is because the inputs of healthcare that make them quality are facilitated with high capital expenditure. From the article that Kaplan and Porter (2011) present however, one would realise that there is

Monday, October 28, 2019

Solutions and Requirements of Project Essay Example for Free

Solutions and Requirements of Project Essay Solutions The best solutions for the problems the college is facing is as follows: Creation of a Web Presentation: This will involve a brief presentation about the college showing the facilities, the area and people, transportation, courses, Fees, Support, News and Event, Student Union and Links to other institution for higher education. The presentation will be made in a slide view mode and would be accessed on the web using the address or the domain name used. Images the existing tutors and student will be put in the slide to make it attractive and the logo will be placed on every slide background. Open days times will be shown on the presentation and any job vacancy will be advertise on the web presentation. This is will be a solution to the problems facing the college but would need a lot of updating and work. Creation of a Website: This website would shows all Departments; at least one division of which would show all the courses offered. The site would fit the purpose for which it was designed using of a wide variety of techniques and showing accuracy in its content, construction and organization. The site would give an accurate impression of what a full site would look like. It must include: * An introductory page (this may be the home page or could be separate) * A page on each department of the college indicating sub divisions (eg Business ICT/Travel Tourism/Business Studies) * Information on all courses in a particular division (ICT) * Facilities/campus (a slideshow might be useful here, perhaps a map linking to images) * Student union * News (indicating events, perhaps a video of a music event) * Equal opportunities * Contact details * Location Travel details * An application form Requirements The following are the requirements of the project: i. Web server I would need a server to be able to upload the website which is JANET(JOINT ACADEMIC NETWORK) because it is specifically designed for colleges and is very reliable. The main reason why I chose Janet because it provides the following resources shown below: * Has Windows Server 2003 and Linus Hosting * Has a web space to upload the website content using FTP and Microsoft FrontPage * Has 5GB storage space per hosted domain with an option to purchase additional web space if required * Has a daily backups of user data and a simple process for recovering backup data * Provides technical reports on the hosted domain Web space, back up ,security, FTP accessibility, fast connection , scripting and technical support services are all included in the features of the JANET. ii. Dream weaver Dream weaver is the market leader and automates or semi-automates almost every command, action and behaviour most web designer would want to use. Specific scripting can be added to web pages to perform certain actions or behaviours such as hit counters (these are often server side and require scripts that particular servers understand). Colours used have to be web safe and are built into most programs. Images have to be rgb/jpg or indexed/gif. Videos can be of various formats but tend to be mpg, wmv, avi and may require specific codecs to be read properly by individual pcs. Animations are generally created by using animated gifs or created in Flash though some can be purely created using type such as scrolling marquees). Audio files are generally wav, wma, mpg or ram but again there are many other formats which may be used and may need specific codecs. File management of web sites must be organised properly or they will not work efficiently. Dream weaver allows uploading to remote si te (server) via the software but most programs do not allow this so a separate ftp program is generally needed. Therefore I chose to use dream weaver because web authoring can be done by any text based program but specialist software programs have been developed to dispense with the extremely tedious method of writing html code. iii. Copyright Security Issues Copyright and security issues should be observed so that the college wouldnt suffer from any complaints. All images should be authorised by the college board to avoid these issues. iv. System Framework The initial site is designed according to the way the pages will be linked and the pages which will be available. Site is another name for the system framework. v. Constraints I would need a n FTP address in order to upload the site which is sometime difficult to get hold off due to security reasons. The budget for the budget is 10000 and should be up and running by summer.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Essay --

In 1815 The Battle of New Orleans was fought, became the largest battle of the war of 1812, and was won by Andrew Jackson. From that time he was recognized as a national hero for winning such a huge war, even though the Treaty of Ghent was the armistice which had ended the War of 1812, and was signed earlier than when The Battle of New Orleans occurred. The Product of The War of 1812 was nationalism. â€Å"America may not have fought the war as one nation, but it emerged as one nation.† (â€Å"Nascent Nationalism†). American art and literature had developed and proceeded to show that nationalism began. â€Å"Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper attained international recognition in the 1820s, significantly as the nation’s first writers of importance to use American scenes and themes† (â€Å"Nascent Nationalism†). American authors had begun to receive equal attention to European writers, and were capable of achieving the level of writing only European authors were recognized as having. â€Å"Irving’s Bracebridge Hall (1822) received at least 32 reviews in the British press, equaling the attention given the work of the two most popular British authors, Byron and Scott.† (Eaton). The American System, similar to the Federalist System, produced economic diversification and represents an effect of nationalism, with its goal to create a unified expanding economy. Henry Clay wanted to create a strong national bank, which would grant lots of mortgages in the West and South. He also envisioned a strong transportation system. The tariff of 1816 was the first tariff in American history passed by Congress â€Å"instituted primarily for protection and revenue† (â€Å"The American System†). Clay wanted a protective tariff that would allow for the flourishing of eastern ma... ... A strong central government was important to Jackson. This strengthened the improved and developed American nationalism. With the belief in a strong democracy and increased involvement and power of man in the government, Jackson supported the rise of nationalism. Nationalism pushed Jackson to make decisions, which shaped the country. This was shown when he threatened South Carolina by getting military ready for action to enforce the federal tariff. Although South Carolina did not go along with paying the tariff, they complied with the government and their idea of collecting a federal tariff. Nationalism imposed many different ideas and was the guiding factor in important American leader’s decisions. Nationalism, as a political ideology shaped the social life of Americans, and was responsible for the political culture of the United States within the years 1815-1836.