Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Problem Statement Scope And Limitation Engineering Essay

Problem Statement Scope And Limitation Engineering Essay In this research ZnO thin film will be doped with aluminium using sol-gel spin-coating method. Then the Al-doped ZnO thin film (as seed catalyst) on a glass substrate will be then layered bottom of an aligned ZnO nanorod structure which was prepared using sonicated sol-gel immersion technique. The nanorod thin film parameters will be characterizing through its I-V curve characteristics and also the optical and absorbance of aligned ZnO nanorod thin film. INTRODUCTION 1.2.1 Background study UV sensor or stands for ultraviolet sensor are important devices that can be used in commercial and military applications. The applications are including gas sensing, space research, high temperature flame detection, air quality monitoring and many more. UV detectors currently used silicon-based detectors and photomultiplier tubes. These materials require costly filters and attenuators. However by replacing those technologies with wide band-gap semiconductors such as zinc oxide (ZnO) have been suggested [1]. UV light emitting or receiving devices, solar cells, gas sensor and transparent electrodes are some of the zinc oxide applications. Various deposition methods such as chemical vapor deposition, sputtering and molecular beam epitaxy were used to fabricate ZnO thin films. However, these deposition methods are high production cost because required high temperature processing and vacuum technology [2]. In this paper, the purpose of this research is to fabricate ultraviolet sensor using zinc oxide thin film and characterize the sensor performances by its electrical properties. Furthermore, this research is to characterize aluminum doping concentration and the nanostructure of zinc oxide thin film. In this research, sol-gel spin coating method was used to prepare Al doped zinc oxide thin film and an aligned ZnO nanorod structured thin films on a glass substrate by the sonicated sol-gel immersion method. 1.2.2 Literature Review ZnO is an n-type semiconductor with a direct band gap of 3.42eV and because of the oxygen vacancies and intrinsic defects such as interstitial zinc atoms, the electrical conductivity of the films is large [3]. It is very good material for electronic device application due to its wide band gap and large exciton binding energy of 60meV [4]. The properties of ZnO thin film can be improve by a doping process and annealing process [3]. There are that focus on the doping process. To improved electrical or optical properties of ZnO, ZnO were frequently doped with group 3, 4 and 5 elements such as Gallium (Ga), Sn and Aluminium (Al) [5]. Al doping is most suitable because its cheap, abundant and non-toxic material and will produce Al doped ZnO thin film with higher optical transmittance and low resistivity in infrared region [4]. From the journal [6], radio-frequency (RF) reactive magnetron sputtering method was used to deposit Al-doped ZnO on the smooth nucleation side of FSD films by. The electrical properties were discussed. The first electron concentration increased and next decreased with the increase of Al doping concentration. The maximum carrier concentration achieve when the film is doped with 2at% Al. Hall mobility is inversely proportional to the Al doping concentration. The high temperature annealing process is use to enhance the Hall mobility of the films [6]. From the journal [7], ZnO thin films with various weight percentages of aluminium and the electrical properties were discussed using sol-gel dip-coating method. The conductivity shows higher response of the doped ZnO thin films under UV compared with dark condition. Both condition proof that the conductivity of ZnO is directly proportional to doping concentration. The optical band gap energy is also directly proportional with doping concentration. The transmittance of ZnO thin films is about 75% when wavelength from 390nm to 850nm. From the journal [8], at different dopant concentration the electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films were discussed using sol-gel method. The resistance first decrease with increase aluminium ion concentration. Then the resistance of doped thin films increased with increasing dopant concentration and it decreases at higher Al concentration. The transmittance of ZnO thin films is about 80% when wavelength from 370nm to 850nm. The advantage of gallium is an excellent dopant for increasing the conductivity and this source is less reactive and more resistive oxidation. Based on the journal [5], Ga-doped ZnO nanowires were growth using thermal deposition method. The ZnO nanowires have grown uniformly with high yield and average length of each nanowire is about 1.3um. From the XRD pattern, it can be deduced that the Ga element doped into the nanowires creates a clear broadening. The Ga-doped ZnO nanowires have a greater field-enhancement factor than the undoped ZnO nanowires [5]. Aqueous solution process with post-growth rapid photothermal processing (RPP) was used to prepare Sn-doped ZnO nanorods to develop aligned Sn-doped ZnO nanostructure. Aqueous solution method was chosen in preparation of metal oxide nanoparticles structure due to its cost and environment friendly. Rapid photothermal processing (RPP) as an alternatives of thermal annealing was combine with aqueous solution due to short cycle time, reduced exposure and flexibility [9]. Based on journals [6], [7] and [8], the optimum doping concentration of aluminium is 2at%, 5at% and 1.5at% respectively. Optimal aluminium doping concentration will gives highly semiconducting properties of Al-doped ZnO thin film for application UV sensor [4]. A research had done on various Al doping concentration and the optimum doping concentration is at 1at% Al. This research will used 1at% Al concentration based on journal [4]. Aligned ZnO nanorods that were prepared using sonication method are a simple way and very low cost method compared to other techniques. It also will growth high quality ZnO nanorod with a small diameter size [10]. 1.2.3 Problem Statement, Scope and Limitation Most people are aware of the effects of UV through the painful condition of sunburn, but the UV spectrum has many other effects whether its benefits or damaging to human health. Too much exposure to UV radiation can affect human health. UV application for optical sensor used 230 nm to 400nm wavelength which is ultraviolet B (UVB) which is harmful to human skin. Since it is harmful to human skin, metal oxide semiconductor films have been considered due to its excellent chemical and physical properties. One of them is zinc oxide material. Zinc oxide is not only good in optoelectronic but also in electrical properties. Zinc oxide is then will be doped with aluminium to enhanced the zinc oxide thin film properties by using sol-gel spin-coating method. It is important to choose the right method for preparing aligned ZnO nanorod. The scope of this research is to investigate the electrical properties (I-V characteristic) and the optical properties of the ZnO nanorod thin film at different i mmersion time. The limitations of this research are on the solution preparation and deposition condition which are different for different groups and on the fix parameter. 1.2.4 Significant of the research The nanomaterials based sensors are raising the advantage of size reduction and enhanced functionality [12]. This research will used a simple method to prepare an aligned ZnO nanorod thin film which is sol-gel immersion method which is this method has not been reported by any research group. Moreover it is very low-cost method. 1.2.5 Objectives To prepare Al-doped ZnO thin film as seed catalyst layer. To prepare aligned ZnO nanorod thin film at different immersion time. To fabricate aligned ZnO nanorod thin film based UV photoconductive sensor. To characterize fabricated UV sensor. 1.2.6 Research Questions To achieve the objective of this research, some research questions would need to focus on which are: What is the I-V curve characteristic of aligned ZnO nanorod thin films before and after exposing to the UV illumination? What is the optical and absorbance characteristic of aligned ZnO nanorod thin films? How to fabricate ZnO thin film? What is the factor affecting the nanostructure ZnO thin film before and after exposing to the UV illumination? CHAPTER 2 2.1 Research Methodology 2.1.1 Al doped ZnO thin films Sol-gel spin-coating method was used to prepare Al doped ZnO thin films. The solution include zinc acetate dihydrate (Zn(CH3COO)2 2H2O) as precursor, aluminium nitrate nonahydrate (Al(NO3)3 9H2O) as a dopant source,monoethanolamine (MEA, C2H7N14) as a stabilizer and 2-methoxyethanol as a solvent were prepared. The concentration of aluminium nitrate was 1.0at% Al doping and the molar ratio of MEA to zinc acetate was fixed at 1.0. At 3 hours before aged at room temperature for 24hours to yield clear and homogeneous solutions the solution was stirred at 80Â °C. The solutions were then used for deposition process by spin-coating technique. Substrates used were microscope on the glass substrates. At room temperature, the spin-coating was performed using 10 drops of solution per deposition with a speed of 3000rpm for 60s. The films were preheated in atmosphere ambient at 150Â °C for 10 minutes to evaporate the solvent each time after deposition process. The films were annealed at 500Â ° C for 1 hour in air ambient using a furnace (Protherm) after repeating the coating procedure 10 times. The crystal structure and orientation of ZnO thin films were investigated by X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The cross-section of the film thickness is observed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM). By using UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometer, the optical properties of ZnO thin films were measured in the wavelength range from 200 nm to 1500nm. The electrical properties were measured by dc probing system [4]. Start Prepare the solution of zinc oxide Precursor : zinc acetate dehydrate Stabilizer : monoethanolamine Dopant source : aluminium nitrate nonahydrate Solvent : 2-methoxyethanol Heat and stir the solution Temperature : 80Â °C Time : 3hr Solution stirring and aging Temperature : room temperature Time : 24hr Thin film deposition using spin-coating tech. Speed : 3000rpm Time : 60s Temperature : room temperature Solution : 10 drops of solution per deposition Thin film drying Temperature : 150Â °C Time : 10min Repeat 10 times Thin film annealing Temperature : 500Â °C Time : 1hr End 2.1.2 Aligned ZnO nanorod structure An aligned ZnO nanorod structure was prepared using the sonicated sol-gel immersion method on a glass substrate coated with a ZnO thin film that had been doped with 1at% Al. The sol-gel coating method was used to prepare the Al-doped ZnO thin film as a seeded catalyst that was prepared on the glass substrate. A solution was prepared of 0.1M zinc nitrate hexahydrate (Zn (NO3)2 .6H2O) and 0.1M hexamethylenetetramine (HMT, H2NCH2CH2OH) in deionized water (DI). At 50Â °C for 30 minutes using an ultrasonic water bath, this solution was sonicated. The solution was then aged and stirred for 3 hours at room temperature. The sonicated and aged solution was poured into a Schott bottle, at the bottom which had been placed the horizontal Al-doped ZnO thin film coated glass substrate. The capped bottle was then immersed in a 95Â °C water bath for 4 hours. After the immersion process, the sample was cleaned with DI water and allowed to dry in ambient air. By using field emission scanning electro n microscope (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), the resulting ZnO nanorod structure was characterized for surface morphology and crystallinity. The optical transmittance and absorbance properties of the sample were characterized by UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometer [10]. Start Prepare the solution in deionized water 0.1M zinc nitrate hexahydrate 0.1M hexamethylenetetramine Sonicated solution using an ultrasonic water bath Temperature : 50Â °C Time : 30min Solution stirring and aging Temperature : room temperature Time : 3hr Placed the horizontal Al-doped ZnO thin film coated glass substrate at the bottom Schott bottle. Poured sonicated and aged solution Immersion process Temperature : 95Â °C water bath Time : 4hr Clean with DI water and dry in ambient air Nanorod structure characterization Electrical properties Optical properties End CHAPTER 3 3.1 Conclusion The electrical properties of ZnO thin film improved when ZnO thin film was doped with aluminium. Optimum aluminium doping concentration will gives highly semiconducting properties of Al-doped ZnO thin film for application UV sensor. It is important to find low cost method. The ZnO nanorods have an average diameter of 100nm. An average optical transmittance of 78% was observed. The electrical properties and optical properties of an aligned ZnO nanorod thin film were affected when varying the immersion time. High degree of crystalline, large surface area availability, a visible wavelength transparency and high UV absorption properties, this method show its suitable for UV sensor application.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Essay --

The younger generation now is quite sensitive to issues regarding their physical characteristics. Issues such as ones’ body weight have been of serious concern. School administrators are worried that students might neglect their health; hence, an inquiry into the common eating habits is accomplished. Employing the case study paradigm; this quantitative study is focus on understanding the factors influencing the students’ eating habits. A total of 207 students of a technical vocational university in Taiwan participated in the study. Survey includes common eating habits; more specifically on the types and frequency of the food the students’ eat. The Big Five Personality Scale is also administered to further understand the factors affecting the students’ eating habits. Results show that the students’ eating habits are affected by their various background demographics, such as gender, year level, study session, and personality. More importantly, results also show that the Applied Foreign Language students scored highest on the personality trait openness. Further additional implications on the Big Five Personality are also given. In sum, the current study provides the opportunity of opening up discussions explaining; perhaps not in whole, but in part why students act the way they are today. 1. Introduction In recent years, the public in general have been valuing outward appearance more and more each day. As we read from the new, the number of people undergoing plastic surgery is at the all-time high. Beauty products have been getting better sales, even during these hard economic times [1]. It seems that people cares so much on their outward appearance than their budget. In an educational setting, many have wondered why students... ... signifies that when the frequency for eating dessert increases, Conscientiousness decreases. 5. Conclusion The current study exemplifies the use of the Big Five Personality scale to understand EFL students’ eating habits. This case study, though limited to the sample coming from a science and technology university, shows that students are more geared towards healthy lifestyles. As shown in the results that the frequency for eating breakfast is quite high (five times a week). Furthermore, students who are more Conscientious refrain from eating desserts (sweets). While eating out is much dependent on their employment status. In sum, individuals’ eating habits would be much related to their background demographics. Hence, it is recommended that students should know the consequences of both good and bad eating habits; for ultimately, you are what and how you eat.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Careers In Early Childhood Education Essay

Part AFredrick Frobel believed that children learn when they are lively and free. He also believed that children’s education should be based on their interests and their active involvement. An activity using Frobel’s’ parquet gifts for 3 – 5 year olds would need to be simple enough that they would be able to manipulate the pieces involved and complex enough to challenge their minds. To start our activity I would take thin pieces of wood about 10Ãâ€"10 inches. I would outline a very simple drawing of different animals on the pieces of wood. The children can use the parquet shapes to fill the animal in, or to trace the outline of the animals. The animals would require 7 – 10 shape pieces to complete. This activity would interest the children because of the puzzles and the animal shapes. The constructive play would develop several skills such as hand/eye coordination and mental activity. The children would also be learning about different animals and their parts, like legs, heads and bodies. It also provides a small step towards the next level of play, symbolic play, by mimicking animals out of other materials. Part BMaria Montessori believed that children are internally motivated to interact with the world. She believed that children’s play was a waste of time they could be using to learn. The activity with Frobel’s parquet gifts would use the same animal outlines on the thin 10Ãâ€"10 inch pieces of wood but they would be hollowed out to create the depression of the animal. By adding small knobs to the shape pieces it would teach the children the correct way to hold a pencil. Together these make the puzzles themselves self correcting and keep the children using the activity in the way it was designed. Montessori believed there was only one way to use her education materials. There is a key difference in Fredrick Frobel and Maria Montessori methods. The activity designed for Frobel’s method allows children to create their  own ways to manipulate the pieces, like outlining the puzzle. Since his method was not self correcting it requires more thought to keep the pieces in the right area when adding another piece. Montessori’s method was much more stringent, while she believed children learned by natural exploration she didn’t allow materials to be used other than the designated way. Scenario 2: Learning Activity 1, Pet ParadePet parade is a learning activity where children make pet masks and take turns describing their pet and showing the things their pet like to do. Children naturally like to create and draw. Letting the children choose which animal they would like to represent encourages them to use their minds to make decisions. The children would be creating art by cutting, gluing and coloring their masks as well as planning how they will represent their chosen animal. Standing in front of a class full of children gets the up and moving. They would be speaking and encouraged to answer questions about their pet from the other children. This activity is a fun way to further nurture many skills. Learning Activity 2, What’s Different?What’s different is a real life version of the popular spot the difference books. Children take turns covering their faces or putting heads on their desks while the child whose turn it is changes something about his/her appearance. The change doesn’t have to be big, just rolling up a pant leg, put a sock on their hand or perhaps a funny paper mustache. Then the other children uncover their eyes and take turns guessing what’s different. This activity helps the children to learn about taking turns and being the leader. It also gets them up and moving and helps them with problem solving skills. When the children Letters don’t have to be precise and artistic; they should be fairly constant and readable. They should not float like a balloon or sink below the line and should be formed from the top and not the bottom. Practice forming letters with letter formation drills promotes reading and writing for all children. Children with a visual impairment may have the materials modified. Use brightly colored pens with a black contrasting paper. Enlarge all workbook pages and lined paper, double lines work well for children with visual impairment. For children with epilepsy traditional approaches need to be modified. Some student struggle with motor skills as a result of their epilepsy and they are especially vulnerable to inattention and work incompletion. Further breaking down the letters into simpler steps has been proven to promote writing skills in a child with epilepsy. A few easy steps can be taken to ensure the classroom is suitable for hearing impaired students. When possible, turn off equipment that creates background noises, such as fans and projectors, when not in use. Eliminating extra noise helps students with hearing impairments focus on the class lecture and assignments. Remember that hearing aids amplify every sound, including tapping pencils and air conditioners. Area rugs and heavy curtains can also eliminate a great deal of extraneous noise. Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, especially those with the inattentive subtype, may take longer to process information. Be sure to give them extended time to complete their assignments. Practice letters that  are similarly formed (l/t/I; c/d; v/w), and work on those that are more frequently used — s, m, r — before he tries those less commonly found in words — j, q, z. Engage in different sensory methods for letter formation such as sand, or on an iPad white board using their finger. Scenario 4- Cause, technique, solution and reason: Temper TantrumCause: Connor wants attention. Guidance Technique: Ignore negative behavior. Appropriate Solution: Move to the other side of the room until Connors tantrum is over and then invite him to sit beside you while you read a story. Praise him for sitting beside you nicely. Reason: By ignoring the negative behavior and giving attention to the positive behavior it will effectively stop the tantrums. â€Å"Mommy, don’t go!†Cause: Insecure attachment Guidance Technique: Encouragement Appropriate Solution: Encourage Angela to play with her favorite toy or read a book when she is dropped off in the morning; also speak to Angela’s mother about becoming a secure base and not leaving without saying goodbye to help Angela acclimate. Reason: Positive support and encouragement can help the transition to a new place easier. BullyCause: Power Guidance Technique: Restructure and Reinforce Appropriate Solution: Restructure the environment so there are fewer opportunities for bullying. Help Jenny realize she has power over her decision by letting her choose and activity and choosing to play with someone instead of taking over. Reinforce positive behavior when she makes the right choice. Reason: Restructuring the environment will provide an assurance of protection to the other children while reinforcing Jenny’s positive behavior shows her that you respect her decisions and care and care for her while paying attention.

Friday, January 3, 2020

Essay about The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo - 1484 Words

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1948 would have lasting negative effects on Mexican Americans. The Treaty was signed after America had won the Mexican American war. America gained possession of the southwest states that had been part of Mexico for the price of around eighteen million dollars. In Article IX of the Treaty, it states that the Mexicans shall be maintained and protected in the free enjoyment of their liberty and property, and secured in the free exercise of their religion without restriction(Vargas 139). And as Rachel Rivera points out Article VII promised the Mexicans the right to keep their land which previously belonged to Mexico. However, the Treaty would not grant the†¦show more content†¦recaptures the growth of a movement for Mexican Americans. According to the film, the word Chicano was used because of its meaning—poorest of the poor. Before the movement because nationally known, it had to have a leader. Reies Lopez Tijerina led the beginning of the movement. Tijerina raised questions of Spanish and Mexican land grants. Tijerina fought to uphold the Mexican American rights protected by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Tijerina opposed the government for confiscating the Mexican American land illegally. In an open letter from 1969 he writes from the Sante Fe jail. He compares the Mexican struggle with the black struggle in America. The black Civil Rights movement of the sixties would help open the door for other causes, such as the Chicano movement. In the movie Chicano! the blacks led by Martin Luther King Jr., and the Chicano movement led by Corky Gonzalez plan for a poor people march on the capital in Washington D.C. However, Dr. King was shot weeks before the planned march. Without King’s leadership the movement did not have the same effect. The different ethnic groups could not organize as well as they could behind King’s strong words. The movement would have had positive effects on the rest of America. Unfortunately, as stated in the film, they never could get it together. The social awareness of the 1960’s was in part successful because of the youth. The Chicano movement and many organizations began to grow in high schoolsShow MoreRelatedThe Treaty Of Guadalupe Hidalgo1654 Words   |  7 Pagescity is captured February 2nd, 1848: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is signed February 1848: Mexican territories ceded Signed on February 2, 1848, in Guadalupe Hidalgo, a city north of the capital. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed by the U.S. and Mexico. The United States appointed Nicholas P. Trist, a citizen of the United States and the Mexican Republic has appointed Don Luis Gonzaga Cuevas, Don Bernardo Couto, and Don Miguel Atristain. 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The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo played a significant role in establishing the border between the United States and Mexico, property and civil rights for Mexican nationals, border patrol, and labor disputes that still influence the United States today. The signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo not only ended the Mexican War, but also was also vital in influencing the history of