Monday, September 30, 2019

Sarbanes Oxley Act 2002

Anna Hendryx September 14, 2010 Acc. 201 Sarbanes-Oxley Act 2002 Extra Credit Report Frank Huber Introduction The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 was a piece of legislation that came into effect in 2002 which introduced major changes to the regulations of the many financial practices as well as corporate governance. This particular piece of legislation was named after Senator Paul Sarbanes and Representative Michael Oxley. In this paper I will be discussing the overview, intended purpose, and whether or not SOA was a success or failure. OverviewThe Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 has been deemed as being the most significant change to securities laws since the 1934 Securities Exchange Act. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act was signed by President George W. Bush in 2002, and became effective on July 30th of that year. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, which is often times referred to as â€Å"SOX†, was an act that set forth records management as well as retention policies for all public companies. This parti cular act was enacted in response to corporate scandals that involved large corporations, the Enron scandal being one of the more popular. Anand, 2004) The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires all financial reports to include an internal control report. What an internal control report is designed to do is to show the company’s financial data accurately. Companies have confidence in these particular reports because its adequate controls are in place at all times in order to safeguard financial data. All year-end financial reports must always contain an assessment of the effectiveness of all internal controls. (Anand, 2004) Intended Purpose The intended purpose of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act was passed in the spot light of major corporate scandals.What a lot of these scandals had in common were that they engaged in skewed reporting of selected transactions. For example companies such as Enron, Tyco, and WorldCom misrepresented a variety of questionable transactions which ultimately resulted in very large losses for the stakeholders, of the companies, as well as a crisis in investor confidence. (Green, 2004) It was thought of by Congress that the Sarbanes-Oxley Act would address the problem by aiming to enhance corporate governance as well as to strengthen corporate accountability.Some of the ways that the Act does this is; it formalizes and strengthens internal checks within corporations. It has instituted various new levels of control and sigh-off which is designed to ensure that financial reporting exercises the full disclosure and that corporate governance is transacted with full transparency. (Green, 2004) Has the Sarbanes-Oxley Act been a success or a failure? This particular question is very debatable among different people. I would like to include both sides those who think that SOA has been a failure, and those who feel that SOA has been a success.Those who tend to criticize the Act, often times claim that the Act is unnecessary, and is too expensive to impleme nt. The most overbearing of all the criticizers of the bill claim that not only did the Sarbanes-Oxley Act fail, but also with its so called mission to ensure honest financial record keeping and disclosure but that it has also stifled new business development in the United States. Those who have deemed the SOA as being a success believe that more precise financial statements that are now being prepared for public companies allow the shareholders a greater confidence in regards to their investments. Green, 2004)Conclusion In conclusion having the opportunity to do this paper, has really taught me a lot about the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Before doing the research I can honestly say that I had no idea what it was. My feelings on this Act is that I would more so deem it a success more than a failure for the simple fact that it allows shareholders of large corporations that added confidence and comfort when it comes to dealing with their investments. Also, it helps the internal controls of co mpanies which ultimately provides them more tools to stop fraudulent activity.References: Anand, S. (2004). The Sarbanes-Oxley guide for finance and information technology professionals: by Sarbanes-Oxley group. Clifton, New Jersey: CLA Publishing. Green, S. (2004). Manager's guide to the Sarbanes-Oxley act: improving internal controls to prevent fraud. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons Inc.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Presocratic Philosophy Essay

Introduction As early Greek civilization grew more complex (c. 500 b. c. e. ), mythology and religion began to develop into philosophy (and later into science). As part of this development, a new kind of thinker emerged known as a sophos, from the Greek word for â€Å"wise. † These â€Å"wise men,† and they were almost exclusively men, asked increasingly sophisticated questions about all sorts of things, especially natural processes and the origins and essence of life. Although mythology and religion continued to play important roles in the lives of people for centuries to come, these first philosophers were noted for their attempts to use reason and observation to figure out how the world works. Instead of living a â€Å"normal life,† the sophos devoted himself to asking questions that so-called normal people thought had already been answered (by religion and mythology) or were unanswerable (and thus a waste of time). In respect to public perceptions, it didn’t help that the sophos lived and spoke in ways that were interpreted as showing disregard and possibly disrespect for conventional values, and that set him or (infrequently) her apart from â€Å"regular folks† living â€Å"normal† lives. It is hardly surprising, then, that one of the earliest popular images of philosophers is the stereotype of an odd, â€Å"absent-minded,† starry-eyed dreamer and asker of silly questions. The very first Western thinkers identified as philosophers were initially concerned with questions about the nature of nature (physis) and of the â€Å"world order† (kosmos). Presocratic Rational Discourse The earliest Western philosophers are referred to as the Presocratics because they appeared prior to Socrates, the first major figure in the Western philosophical tradition. Some of the Presocratic philosophers are described as proto-scientists because they initiated the transformation of mythology into rational inquiry about nature and the cosmos. A very general characterization of the development of Presocratic philosophy is helpful for placing subsequent philosophical issues and disagreements in context. Of  most interest for our purposes is the Presocratic philosophers’ struggle to offer rational, â€Å"objective† arguments and explanations for their views. These concerns played a major role in the origins and historical development of Western philosophy. The first philosophers’ intense interest in explanations shaped the development of reason by triggering questions of logical consistency and standards of knowledge that went beyond the sorts of evidence that a craftsman could offer to back up his claims to expertise. The Presocratic Philosophers Thales Thales (c. 624–545 b. c. e.), traditionally said to be the first Western philosopher, seems to have believed that water is in some way central to our understanding of things. This concept was probably based upon a belief that the earth floated on water, and that all things originate with water. Current opinion holds that Thales believed that whatever is real is in some significant sense ‘‘alive. ’’ According to Aristotle, Thales ‘‘thought that all things are full of gods,’’ and as evidence of such powers even in apparently inanimate nature he points to the remarkable properties of what was referred to as the ‘‘Magnesian stone’’. Although Aristotle’s statement is too slight to serve as a sure foundation for judgment, it seems more likely that Thales was arguing for the broader presence of life forces in the world than most people imagined, rather than that the real in its totality is alive. Anaximander Thales’ younger contemporary from Miletus, Anaximander, born toward the end of the seventh century B. C. E. , found the explanatory principle of things in what he called ‘‘the apeiron,’’ a word that might be translated as ‘‘the indefinite,’’ ‘‘the boundless,’’ or both. This opens up the possibility that the apeiron is both immeasurably large in its temporal and physical extent and also qualitatively indefinite in that it is without measurable inner boundaries. The apeiron is further described, according to Aristotle, as being ‘‘without beginning,’’ ‘‘surrounding all things,’’ ‘‘steering all things,’’ ‘‘divine,’’ ‘‘immortal,’’ and ‘‘indestructible. ’’ Some have inferred that Anaximander’s barely concealed purpose was Western philosophy’s first attempt at demythologization. Equally striking is Anaximander’s description of the universe as a closed, concentric system, the outer spheres of which, by their everlasting motion, account for the stability of our earth, a drum-shaped body held everlastingly in a state of equipoise at the center. Whatever the inadequacy in certain details (the stars are placed nearer to the earth than the moon), with Anaximander the science of cosmological speculation took a giant step forward. As far as life on earth is concerned, Anaximander offered another striking hypothesis. The first living things, according to him, were ‘‘born in moisture, enclosed in thorny barks’’ (like sea urchins), and ‘‘as their age increased, they came forth onto the drier part’’ (as phrased by Aetius [first to second century C. E. ]). Pythagoras Although we know that Pythagoras was a historical figure, it is difficult to determine exactly what Pythagoras himself taught. He wrote nothing, and the ideas of other members of the community were attributed to him as a sign of respect and as a way of lending weight to the ideas. Plato and Aristotle rarely assign ideas to Pythagoras himself, although Pythagorean ideas seem to have influenced Plato’s philosophy. Pythagoreans asserted that number is the first principle of all things. They were the first systematic developers of mathematics in the West and discovered that natural events could be described in mathematical terms, especially as ratios. To the Pythagoreans, the â€Å"principle of number† accounted for everything. Number was a real thing. Somehow, numbers existed in space, not just as mental constructs. According to Pythagorean doctrine, the entire universe is an ordered whole consisting of harmonies of contrasting elements. The Greek for â€Å"ordered whole† is cosmos. The Pythagoreans were the first philosophers to use the term cosmos to refer to the universe in this way. The â€Å"celestial music of the spheres† is the hauntingly beautiful phrase the Pythagoreans coined to describe the sound of the heavens as they rotate according to cosmic number and harmony. Xenophanes A fourth Ionian philosopher, Xenophanes of Colophon, born around 580 B. C. E. ,is the first we know of to overtly attack the anthropomorphism of popular religious belief, in a series of brilliant reductio ad absurdum arguments. His own view has been understood, ever since Aristotle, as pantheistic. Xenophanes was also the first philosopher we know of to ask what degree of knowledge is attainable. In B34 we read: ‘‘the clear and certain truth no man has seen, nor will there be anyone who knows about the gods and what I say about all things. ’’ Several ancient critics took this to be an indication of Xenophanes’ total scepticism. On this basis of moderate empiricism and scepticism, Xenophanes offered a number of opinions of varying plausibility about the natural world, one of which—a strong, evolutionary interpretation of the discovery on various islands of fossils of marine animals—is enough to constitute a major claim to fame in natural philosophy and ranks with his other significant steps in epistemology (the theory of knowledge dealing with what we know, how we know it, and how reliable our knowledge is), logic (the study of rational inquiry and argumentation), and natural theology (the attempt to understand God from natural knowledge). Heraclitus One of the most important and enigmatic of the Presocratics, Heraclitus (fl . 500 b. c. e. , d. 510–480 b. c. e. ), said that ignorance is bound to result when we try to understand the cosmos when we do not even comprehend the basic structure of the human psyche (soul) and its relationship to the Logos. The complex Greek word logos is intriguing. It could and at times did mean all of the following: â€Å"intelligence,† â€Å"speech,† â€Å"discourse,† â€Å"thought,† â€Å"reason,† â€Å"word,† â€Å"meaning,† â€Å"study of,† â€Å"the record of,† â€Å"the science of,† â€Å"the fundamental principles of,† â€Å"the basic principles and procedures of a particular discipline,† â€Å"those features of a thing that make it intelligible to us,† and â€Å"the rationale for a thing. † The Heraclitean capital L Logos is like God, only without the anthropomorphizing (humanizing) of the earlier philosophers and poets who attributed human qualities to the gods. According to Heraclitus’s impersonal view of God, the Logos is a process, not an entity. As such, the Logos is unconcerned with individuals and human affairs, in much the same way that gravity affects us but is unconcerned with us. More radically yet, Heraclitus asserted that even though things appear to remain the same, â€Å"Change alone is unchanging. † Traditionally, it has been held that Heraclitus went so far as to claim that everything is always changing all the time. But whether he really meant that everything is always changing, or that individual things are held together by energy (change), remains unclear. Anaximenes Anaximander’s younger contemporary, Anaximenes, who lived during the sixth century B. C. E. appears to revert to a prior and less sophisticated vision in claiming that the earth, far from being a drum-shaped body held in equipoise at the center, is flat and ‘‘rides on,’’ supported by air. The same might be said of his contention that the basic, ‘‘divine’’ principle of things was not some indefinite entity but something very much part of our experience; namely, air. Anaximenes’ view would also no doubt have seemed to be corroborated by the fact that the universe, commonly understood as a living thing and hence needing a soul to vivify it, possessed in air that very ‘‘breath’’ that for most Greeks constituted the essence of such a soul. Parmenides Parmenides of Elea (fift h century b. c. e. ) radically transformed the early philosophers’ interest in cosmology, the study of the universe as a rationally ordered system (cosmos), into ontology, the study of being. By common agreement he was the giant among the pre-Socratics. According to Parmenides, none of his predecessors adequately accounted for the process by which the one basic stuff of the cosmos changes into the many individual things we experience every day. In his search for a solution to the problem of â€Å"the one and the many,† Parmenides turned to a reasoned analysis of the process of change itself. According to Parmenides, all sensations occur in the realm of appearance. This means that reality cannot be apprehended by the senses. Change and variety (the many) are only appearances; they are not real. If this is true, then our most commonly held beliefs about reality are mere opinions. The senses cannot recognize â€Å"what is,† much less can they discover—observe—it, ever. In other words, whatever we see, touch, taste, hear, or smell is not real, does not exist. Perhaps most unsettling of all, Parmenides â€Å"solved† the problem of the appearance of change by concluding—in direct opposition to Heraclitus’s insistence that everything is always changing—that the very concept of change is self-contradictory. What we think of as change is merely an illusion. The logic runs as follows: â€Å"Change† equals transformation into something else. When a thing becomes â€Å"something else,† it becomes what it is not. But since it is impossible for â€Å"nothing† (what is not) to exist, there is no â€Å"nothing† into which the old thing can disappear. (There is no â€Å"no place† for the thing to go into. ) Therefore, change cannot occur. Empedocles posited, against Parmenides, change and plurality as features of reality, but affirmed the eternality of anything that is real; the sphere-like nature of the real when looked at as a totality and the fact that the real is a plenum, containing no ‘‘nothingness’’ or ‘‘emptiness’’. Anaxagoras likewise posited change, plurality, and divisibility as features of reality, yet also affirmed the eternality of the real (understood by him as an eternally existent ‘‘mixture’’ of the ‘‘seeds’’ of the things currently constituting the world, rather than the eternal combinings and recombinings, according to certain ratios of admixture, of four eternally existent ‘‘roots’’ or elemental masses). Leucippus Leucippus of Miletus (c. fi ft h century b. c. e. ) and Democritus of Abdera (c. 460–370 b.c. e. ) argued that reality consists entirely of empty space and ultimately simple entities that combine to form objects. T is materialistic view is known as atomism. Leucippus is credited with being the originator of atomism and Democritus with developing it. Rather than reject Parmenides’ assertion that change is an illusion, Leucippus argued that reality consists of many discrete â€Å"ones,† or beings. Zeno Zeno, who was born early in the fifth century B. C. E. , was a friend and pupil of Parmenides. In his famous paradoxes he attempted to show by a series of reductio ad absurdum arguments, of which the best known is perhaps that of Achilles and the tortoise, the self-contradictory consequences of maintaining that there is a real plurality of things or that motion or place are real. The prima facie brilliance of many of the arguments continues to impress people, though it soon becomes clear that the paradoxes turn largely on the failure or unwillingness of Zeno, like so many Pythagoreans of the day, to distinguish between the concepts of physical and geometrical space. Zeno’s way of constructing the problem makes it seem that his primary object is to defame pluralists by attacking the logical possibility of explaining how there can be motion in the world. Gorgias Gorgias has achieved fame for the stress he laid upon the art of persuasion (‘‘rhetoric’’), although whether he wrote the baffling On What Is Not as a serious piece of persuasive reasoning or as some sort of spoof of the Eleatic philosophy of Parmenides and others remains disputed. Its basic, and remarkable, claim is prima facie, that nothing in fact is (exists /is the case [esti] or is knowable or conceivable. Any exiguous plausibility that the arguments supporting this claim possess turns on our overlooking Gorgias’s failure, witting or unwitting, to distinguish carefully between knowing and thinking, along with his various uses of the verb ‘‘to be. ’’ If the failure was witting, the document can be seen as a skillful device for the spotting of fallacies as part of training in rhetoric and basic reasoning. If it was unwitting, Gorgias still emerges as what he was claimed to be—a deft rhetorical wordsmith on any topic proposed to him. Protagoras Perhaps the greatest of the Sophists was Protagoras of Abdera (481– 411 b. c. e. ). Protagoras was an archetypal Sophist: an active traveler and first-rate observer of other cultures who noted that although there are a variety of customs and beliefs, each culture believes unquestioningly that its own ways are right—and roundly condemns (or at least criticizes) views that differ from its own. Based on his observations and travels, Protagoras concluded that morals are nothing more than the social traditions, or mores, of a society or group. The details of Protagoras’s beliefs remain disputed. When he said, for example, that ‘‘anthropos [humanity] is a/the measure for all things, of things that are, that they are, and of things that are not, that they are not,’’ it is unclear whether he is talking about one person or the sum total of persons; about ‘‘a’’ measure or ‘‘the’’ measure (there is no definite article in Greek); or about existence or states of affairs or both. The Platonic reading in the Theaetetus, which takes ‘‘anthropos’’ as generic and ‘‘measure’’ as exclusive, led to the assertion that the logical consequence was total (and absurd) relativism. ______________________________ References: The Columbia History of Western Philosophy. Richard H. Popkin. Columbia University Press. 1999. Archetypes of Wisdom: An Introduction to Philosophy. 7th ed. Douglas J. Soccio. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. 2010.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

13.2 Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

13.2 - Coursework Example The portrait is staring sharply at an imaginary audience as if seeking attention. The principal feature in Schapiro’s Blue Angel painting is the feminist movement exhibited by the artwork is the woman’s professionalism and perceived autonomy. Blue Angel, woman represented in the picture, seems comfortable undertaking her career. She exhibits self-confidence evident in her sitting posture and dress code. The rough background of the painting most probably suggests the rough social background within which such women strive to attain high levels of prosperity (Love 408). Schapiro’s Blue Angel portrays a confident woman personality and exhibits a sense of superiority. Confidence and superiority depicted in Blue Angel’s portrait contradicts the traditional sexism notion evident among most Americans. In the contemporary world, women strive to find their place among male dominated society by pursuing relevant talents. Schapiro’s Blue Angel exposes a woman’s autonomy and self-worth that surpasses their oppression and sexism. Blue Angel and other feminist artworks by Schapiro focus on the female body and personality to dismiss negative notions held against women in a society dominated by sexist

Friday, September 27, 2019

Case Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 6

Case - Essay Example The most commonly used tool is the ANOVA (Analysis of Variance). ANOVA helps the manufacturers to predict the customer demands and requirements in particular markets. The results obtained help the Sales and Marketing Department to predict the volume of production and supply of goods. For instance, it helps them to know what type of a car model preferred over the rest in a particular region. The organization also uses correlation as a method of forecasting the sales. The tool analyzes the variables that determine the sales volumes. It then establishes the relationship between the variables. For instance, the exchange rate of the dollar determines the fluctuations of the market prices. The correlation becomes stable if it has a position coefficient of 1, and weak if the coefficient is negative. If it is zero, then at that particular moment there is no relationship between the two variables. In the same case, regression is used to determine the sales volumes. Sales=Number of vehicles sold*selling price (,). The other company is the Netflix. It deals with the online distribution of movies, videos, and music. One of the tools used to forecast the sales of the enterprise is the descriptive statistics. The tool analyzes the trend in the sales. For instance, it determines the number of videos sold via the online market, the frequency of visit by the registered customers, as well as the rate at which new clients enroll. The data obtained is used to predict the financial stability of the organization, as well as its competitive position at the market. Netflix also uses the exponential smoothing tool. The device employs the principle of comparison the sales of the previous years. The organization uses the margin of error between the last two previous years to brace on how to adjust the production and sales strategies. On the same not, the moving average tool is used to analyze the

Thursday, September 26, 2019

The Concepts of Advertising and Public Relations Essay

The Concepts of Advertising and Public Relations - Essay Example The targeted public is not necessarily part of any given consumer base. However, the practice of influence, encouragement, or influence still plays a fundamental role as far as public relations are concerned. In essence, public relations work towards effective and efficient management of the underlying communication between an organization and its targeted publics (Wilcox, Glen, Philip, & Warren, 2003). In light of the above definitions, advertising and public relations are essentially intertwined, but they still have their operational differences in actual practice. Advertising, which makes use of marketing communication, strives to influence consumer behaviour and perceptions towards given products and/or services (Chia & Synnott, 2012). In so doing, the result is to sell and at the same time convince the consumer to buy. While modes of advertising vary from one consumer target to another, the common denominator is that advertising is designed to influence consumer attitude. According to Chia and Synnott (2012), Clow and Baack, Means-End theory, and Leverage Points are critical models upon which advertising is practised. Before buying, consumers move through progressive steps of decision making before choosing a product or service.  

Frosted Plc Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Frosted Plc - Essay Example 135). To be understandable, the company has to distinguish between basic earnings per share and diluted earnings per share. Basic earnings per share should be calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to ordinary shareholders, by the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding during the period. For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit attributable to ordinary shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding should be adjusted of the effects of all dilutive potential ordinary shares. If the number of ordinary or potential ordinary shares increases as a result of capitalisation, bonus issue, share split or other reasons, the calculation of earnings per share and diluted earnings per share should be re-calculated retrospectively (Tiffin 2004, p. 137). Materiality means that insignificant amounts should be ignored. ... To do so, it should be able to (a) help them assess past, present, or future events and to (b) confirm or amend past assessments they have made (IASB framework n.d.). Disclosure of relevant information is closely related to the concept of materiality - what is material is likely to be relevant. Relevant information also includes changes in number of shares in issue during the year and the dilution of earnings per share caused by the conversion of potential ordinary shares to ordinary shares (Tiffin 2004, p. 138). Reliability is influenced by the use of estimates and by uncertainties in the recognition and measurement of items. These uncertainties are dealt with by disclosure and by practicing prudence in preparing financial statements (IASB framework n.d.). An enterprise should disclose (a) the amounts used as the numerators for any earnings per share figures and a reconciliation of the amounts to the reported net profit or loss for the period and (b) the weighted average numbers of ordinary shares used as the denominator of any earnings per share figure. A reconciliation among the differing numbers of ordinary shares should be given where appropriate. Basic and diluted earnings per share should be presented, with equal prominence, on the face of the income statement. If an enterprise discloses additional earnings per share figures, example excluding a one off, exceptional cost, then the calculations should be as for basic or diluted earnings per share figures. All earnings per share figures should be disclosed with equal prominence (Tiffin 2004, p. 137). Substance over form means that the underlying business position matters rather than the legal form. For example, equipment may be leased over 5 years-60 monthly installments being paid;

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Current Event Paper Research Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Current Event - Research Paper Example -related hooded sweatshirt and â€Å"up to no good.† Although not all specific facts of this case are known and may never be, enough evidence has been presented to make some rational conclusions. The general public was not aware of Martin’s killing for a week after it happened. The story didn’t go national for another week. Since then, the media frenzy has focused on three basic questions; who started the fight, did Zimmerman fear for his life and how impartial were Stanford, Florida law enforcement officials in response to this case? The mainstream news coverage, though very thorough, has not been able to or hasn’t ventured to answer these important questions conclusively. To answer the impartiality question theorize if the police, prosecutors and local press would have reacted differently if the races were reversed. Yes. No hesitation in anyone’s mind, not even among the right-wing media. The answers to the other two questions are almost if not as certain. Much depends on what Zimmerman did after the dispatcher told him â€Å"we don’t need you to do that† instructing him not to follow Martin. Zimmerman responded â€Å"ok† bu t what did he do? The unelected, unofficial self-appointed neighborhood â€Å"watchman† continued to follow Martin who was on the phone with his girlfriend well after the directive for Zimmerman to stop. Had he followed that directive, Martin would not have died that night. As for feeling threatened, it was Martin who was being pursued. He was fearful for his safety and may or may not have reacted physically as he was approached by a stranger in the dark. One of the last things Martin’s girlfriend hears before the phone and her boyfriend went dead was him saying â€Å"why are you following me?† Good question for local police and the prosecuting attorney. Zimmerman is hanging his hopes of not being hung on Florida’s â€Å"stand your ground† law. If he can prove self defense he is set free which is, by the grace of skin tone, his

Monday, September 23, 2019

Compare and contrast the great depression and todays great recession Essay

Compare and contrast the great depression and todays great recession - Essay Example Therefore, it is relevant to correlate historical experience of 20s with the current processes in the economy. In order to show distinctions and parallels between the Great Depression and the Great Recession, it is required to analyze the reasons of these periods in the American history, draw parallels between them in order to develop lessons for the future practical implementation of successful strategies and avoid mistakes of the previous years. Another supposed reason for the Great Depression is often found in banks collapse. When investors took away their money from the banks to pay debts, nearly 9,000 banks failed in less than 10 years. Therefore, a credit crisis occurred. Those individuals who had bank accounts lost their savings and businesses did not have an ability to expand. Furthermore, this drastic economic situation was also spoiled by a slow process of recession. People were afraid of spending their money and many companies had to decrease their production levels. As a result, a great number of unemployed people occurred. The American government managed to correct the challenging situation and introduced The Smoot – Hawley Tariff act of 1930. In accordance with this Act, American companies could easily trade with international companies and pay fewer taxes. Still, the government could not resist dust and drought storms, which devastated agricultural sector. As a result, the prices for food were high and p overty rates increased as well. As far as we can see, there are many parallels which can be found between the Great Depression and today’s Great Recession. Let us focus our attention on the reasons that triggered the Great Recession. In 2008 only 19 banks have experienced bankruptcy. In 1930, 744 banks failed. In 30s, banks were protected by the FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) (Chee-Heong Quah and Crowley, 2009). Still, this system is more beneficial for banks nowadays. In

Sunday, September 22, 2019

US presidency Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

US presidency - Essay Example president was George Washington, "the father of all Americans," who ruled the country from 1789 to 1797, that the current State President, Barack Hussein Obama, was elected in 2009 from the Democratic Party and is the 44th the president, in general, and the first black leader in the states’ history. The past twentieth century presented the United States with Vivid, unforgettable leaders. In the face of the presidents of the twentieth century, from William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt, at the beginning of last century, to George Herbert Walker Bush (1989-1993) and William Jefferson Clinton (1993-2001) at the end, the state had talented, intelligent, energetic leaders. However, their acts were not always beneficial for the state and sometimes brought evil and suffering to peoples all over the world. This paper will discuss two leaders of the American people, who were destined to govern the largest state in the world in a bygone age, democrat Lyndon Baines Johnson (1963-1969) and republican Richard Milhous Nixon (1969-1974). Lyndon Baines Johnson (1908-1973) began his political career in 1931 as secretary of Congressman R. Kleberg. By 1948, held the chair of senator and in 1955, he became the first leader of the Democratic Party. In 1960, Johnson decided to run for president. However, an election victory in 1960 was won by John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1961-1963), and Johnson preceded the powers of the Vice President on January 20, 1961. In 1963, Kennedy was assassinated on the 22 of November, and since that day Johnson began to serve as president. The end of the presidency of Lyndon Johnson was the 20th of January, 1969, when Nixon was inaugurated. After this event, the 36th U.S. President Lyndon Baines Johnson went to his ranch in Texas. He dropped out of high policy, wrote memoirs, and occasionally lectured at the University of Texas. He died on January 22, 1973, in his hometown of Stonewall of a third heart attack,

Friday, September 20, 2019

Parts Of A Green Ict Strategy Information Technology Essay

Parts Of A Green Ict Strategy Information Technology Essay This research study has offered and in-depth study of the impact of Cloud Computing on sustainable business practices and has effectively examined the fact that whether organizations are able to achieve business benefits as an outcome. Particularly, the study analyses and critically assesses whether adopting a cloud computing model as part of a Green ICT strategy can actually achieve sustainability benefits as well as gaining operational efficiencies and cost reduction. The study discusses that Information and communication technology (ICT) has increasingly become a powerful social and economical trend, with time. It has left its mark on the business landscape of the twenty first century. With a detailed background of ICTs, the paper has successfully illustrated as to how computer devices like monitors, keyboards, printers, laptops, etc need extensive power and energy, and in this context ICT has become an integral and vital part of the modern workplace and has transformed organizations to compete in the digital revolution (European Commission 2010). Research Strategy: The study has followed an inductive approach since the focus was laid on the understanding of the meanings attached to events. There is, however, less concern with the need to generalize as the way of carrying out the research has influenced the research outcomes. Since several research strategies exist for different types of research work, such as experiments, surveys, case studies, action research, grounded theory, archival and ethnography, etc. this research project has selected the case study method. The research project involves an empirical investigation of a contemporary phenomenon in real life context using multiple sources of evidences. This research work has adopted a single case study approach for a typical government department as discussed in the previous sections. The case studies involved are based on exploratory research done with the help of publicly available information for understanding what processes they have implemented as well as the success they have achieved. Furthermore, the case studies involved a limited quantity of archival research to understand how, in case previous projects have been finished and the metrics that were used to quantify the success of these (BIAC 2009) (Quat Fai 2009). In this context, the research has also used the Multi-method qualitative study because it involves informal as well as structured interviews and archival research. The research project is a cross-sectional study as it studies the research problem as a snapshot, i.e. study of a particular phenomenon at a particular time. Data is obtained through surveys and interviews available from public sources across the Internet. Findings Discussion: Several green measures have been implemented in practice. Organizations strongly believe that Green ICT will highly benefit government, together with ICT and non-ICT industries alike, in heightening effectiveness and sustainability. The research paper illustrated some specific green ICT initiatives undertaken by government. These are: Employing energy-efficient air-cooling systems in and around the Central Computer Centre Proclaiming the practice guide on Green Management to departments and offices for their adoption and detailed reference Adhering to the applicable green procurement guidelines to introduce energy efficiency requirements and appropriate environmental considerations in securing IT products and services (Quat Fai 2009) Hosting public awareness programmes to impart knowledge on the need to reuse as well as re-cycle waste computers and several other electrical appliances Bringing forth e-book and e-learning initiatives that help in reducing paper usage and offer opportunities for overall industry development Making use of technologies of mobile, video-conferencing and telepresence and remote collaboration tools in order to cut down the need for physical business travels. Influencing and encouraging the development of intelligent transport and car navigation systems, fleet management systems, etc for transportation optimization for reducing fuel consumption and emission, and lastly, Urging the application of planning and resource management systems in order to optimize collection and disposal of waste. Further, location based technologies such as RFID and global positioning system (GPS), and image processing applications can help in locating and handling waste (BIAC 2009). Organizations have declared that they will embrace Green ICT as a government IT strategy and particularly to make constant changes and enhancements to their existing IT infrastructure and facilities. Green ICT as a cure for todays economic crisis: The study has offered detailed knowledge about what Green ICT is. It explains that Green ICT attempts to enhance the initiation and utilization of information and communications technologies, services and products which are capable of cutting down energy and resources, optimizing operational efficiency and gain savings while meeting the needs of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Say, for example, considerable operational costs can be decreased from energy conservation for ICT benefits such as centres for data processing and network operation, internet exchange junctions, and other ICT facilities, since energy consumption price alone is recorded to be as much as 50% of their operating costs. It can be stated that greener ICT technologies, services or products will certainly become traditional with increase in global concerns on climate change and deterioration in environment (BIAC 2009) (Molla et al 2010). Green ICT Reduces Costs: With various methodologies adopted to determine the importance of Green ICT, this study was able to illustrate that ICT is virtually omnipresent in the business world. Virtually, there is no product or service that does not depend on ICT in some manner for its production, development, distribution or commercialization. However, while ICT equipment causes consumption of energy, Green ICT is proven to be an integral part of the solution to assist in reducing energy cost of an operation, not just inside the ICT industry itself, but also for other sectors of the economy which count on ICT. This is especially essential now that there is growing pressure on majority of industries and businesses to cut costs (ONeil 2010). A US company, for instance, expert in high performance networking anticipated that employing virtualization technology can help them become less dependable on some 325 servers at their data centres, thereby leading to a reduction of almost 1278 Megawatt per hour every year . Reducing energy consumption and the ensuing costs savings associated with Green ICT may leave many firms with much more resources to be used for other crucial ICT initiatives. Hence, Green ICT can help make a broad array of local businesses more agile and responsive for competing in the global economy (European Commission 2010). A good example of this is Hong Kongs ICT and is linked industries which have a wealth of skills that are capable of making a real difference and gain recognition and success in developing ICT-based green innovations. Green ICT gives opportunities: Greater demands for ICT-driven innovations, which are able to reduce energy and materials used whilst enhancing the efficiency of business systems, can generate global opportunities for a companys business and professionals. These innovations include software applications, such as virtualization technology to implement power savings, and hardware applications, such as server with energy-saving properties. For instance, Hong Kongs ICT and its closely linked industries possess a wealth of skills which can actually make a major difference and gain recognition and achieve success in developing ICT-driven green innovations. Furthermore, essential infrastructure and mechanisms for incubation must be in place for the industry in order to capitalize on the increasingly expanding global market for ICT-based solutions planned for improving the energy efficiency as well as tackling the climate change concerns (BIAC 2009) (ONeil 2010). Green ICT heightens environmental benefits: The research study could determine that apart from the economic benefits, adopting Green ICT practices in business operations can easily deal with climate change issues that are associated with greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, it also described that Green ICT can play a crucial role in helping to promote the low carbon economy around the world. The ICT industry can also produce a green image while behaving as a responsible global citizen (Bibri 2009) (Molla et al 2010). Government as a Green ICT user: After progressively studying social and economic trend set by the information and communication technology, this research study goes on to prove that how the Government is one of the primary users of ICT and has a substantial impact on the health of the ICT industry. In other words, as a prime influencer one believes that the Government takes the leading role in embracing Green ICT technologies and quantifies for improving its operational efficiency along with encouraging an environmentally aware and sustainable culture to the society. In order further motivate government involvement and to develop Green ICT strategy plans for addressing environmental impacts that accompany the usage of ICT services and products, the study recommends that it is essential for the Government to establish close collaboration with the ICT industry (European Commission 2010). Moreover, it recommends the following areas to be considered as starting points for the Government for exploring more opportunities for the smooth implementation of Green ICT: Implementing standards and policies which influence the use of Green ICT technologies as well as practices. Deploying Government-wide Green ICT audit is essential to realize opportunities for bettering resource and energy efficiencies when reducing greenhouse gas emissions of ICT within Government operations, specifically in ICT-intensive facilities like Government data centres. Speeding up the upgrade of orthodox and traditional ICT equipment and systems in the Government to Green ICT substitutes offered by local ICT industry Taking the lead in utilizing ICT-based innovations which may help increase energy efficiencies and reduce resources as a role model for the remaining business sectors (Molla et al 2010). The research paper supported the development of Green ICT innovations by drawing out the following assertions (Barker 2007). ICT professionals associated with the industry identify that technologies can be best utilized as an effective tool primarily for improving operational effectiveness and resolving environmental sustainability issues. As such, the ICT industry can be urged to come up with more innovative Green ICT solutions and technologies to best fulfil the rapidly growing market needs and demands. The study could advocate that the in order for the Government to offer support to foster the development of Green ICT innovations, a specific pre-decided budget must be allocated out of the current Innovation and Technology Fund distributed by the Innovation and Technology Commission as well as the Environment and Conservation Fund primarily administered by the Environmental Campaign Committee for supporting Green ICT research and development. Also, it is necessary to establish a robust mechanism for recognizing or certifying ICT products and services that accomplish prescribed green standards. Maximizing use of Green ICT in local business is highly encouraged . Establishing market for Green ICT services or products is the most important consideration in making Green ICT blossom locally. A Government must establish a Green ICT Technology Platform that involves the organization of Green ICT Database and workshops, and so forth in order to allow local businesses to gain more opportunities in employing the Green ICT solutions. Funding or subsidies must be offered for SMEs in order to engage professionals in carrying out Green ICT audit for identifying opportunities for both costs saving as well as reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Similarly, funding, subsidies or loans must be provided for SMEs in order to adopt Green ICTT systems and upgrade their orthodox systems to Green ICT alternatives. In addition to this, even a pilot programme can be financed for various businesses to adopt Green ICT technologies as representation cases (European Commission 2010) (ONeil 2010). An excellent demonstration of how locally developed Green ICT can be exported, is given by this study. Global market for ICT industry or ICT-based solutions to the climate change matters is growing at a rather fast pace. Local ICT industry must not fall behind and combat against their counterparts elsewhere in the world. Since Green ICT technologies on energy management of processes and systems can be extensively applied over virtually every type of business sector, the global market is potentially massive The study recommends the government to establish a mechanism to channel Green ICT technologies or solutions that are locally developed to potential global clients or users with consolidation of efforts from all government departments concerned. Enrichment of Green ICT capability can be gained for ICT professionals. In other words, it can be elaborated that ICT professionals must be supplied with a better understanding of the connection between ICT activities as well as environmenta l issues. Further, they must also be equipped with appropriate tools and the assurance to be the real drivers of designing ICT technologies, equipment, algorithms, and services which are more resource efficient and environment friendly (Australian Computer Society 2009) (Quat Fai 2009). Indeed, the paper is supported by evidences that are derived from exhaustive research on how governments support initiatives to adopt Green ICT. These initiatives include facilitating and provision of support to, the ICT community for setting up a Green ICT consortium for professionals as an attempt to promote the adoption of Green ICT and also be a part of the current wave of creating a local Green ICT trends and culture. Secondly, the initiative emphasizes on the need to partner with the ICT industry in order to organize Green ICT seminars as well as conferences to produce awareness of Green ICT. Next, focus is set on encouragement that must be given in the development of professional training programmes as well as offering recognized qualifications to Green ICT professionals. By doing so, Green ICT contents are also strengthened in local ICT education to satisfy the need of the future (Bibri 2009) (James Hopkinson 2009). Through a careful literature review of the research conducted in the past by researchers and experts, the current study was able to provide an increased understanding in the Green ICT are and successfully analyzes and assesses Sustainable Business Practice associated with Cloud computing. It has further investigated whether implementing a cloud computing policy will enable tangible business advantages aligned with wider Corporate, Social and Environmental Responsibility (CSER) activities, which enabled equipping ICT managers with opportunities to enhance operational excellence and optimize technology that is inherent to the business strategies and ICT infrastructure operations (Barker 2007). The paper suggests ICT as a very apt example of an innovative technology which allows for green growth. Information communication technology and the Internet provide heightened efficiency and productivity in manufacturing, offering services and in working methods. In essence, they help in reducing energy consumption and handle scarce resources. And both greening of the ICT and greening by the ICT are exceedingly crucial in this respect. With such a motive backing the study, it is essential to understand that governments must continue to guarantee policy and regulatory environments which offer rigid support to innovations in ICT technologies and endless capital investment in the telecommunications industry and infrastructure, like broadband and high speed networks, essential to affirm and green ICT application throughout all sectors of the economy (Bibri 2009). A number of tangible business benefits are associated with Green ICT strategies for the organization. These include: Superior business performance with the help of a highly motivated workforce which fully support the need for a Green ICT strategy Effectiveness and efficiency of processes Establishment of smart and wise business strategies in line with views that are depicted widely for the reduction of carbon emissions. Yet another concept of virtualization of the infrastructure is illustrated in the study that supports the business helps in streamlining and automating the business processes by reducing the amount of physical devices which require support. Consequently, this leads to the development of robust as well as dynamic initiatives that can be utilized for the success of the organization. As a result of these processes, organizational productivity and outcome are greatly improved. Extending the energy star rating program for every ICT product will enable businesses to accurately compare the energy consumption of ICT products and take the best decisions with respect to reducing energy use as well as costs for both households and businesses (James Hopkinson 2009). Therefore, this would allow for the entire government ICT energy consumption target and reporting systems to be benchmarked while determining energy intensity measures (Janakiraman 2009). The designed introduction of technologies such as Web 2.0 systems throughout all tiers of the government will act as a catalyst of change in present-day public sector workforce practices, together with the way in which government departments communicate with each other as well as with citizens and stakeholders. With the addition of democratic and interactive technologies through Web 2.0, the sharing of information between sites has increasingly become a necessity, which entails that websites must be capable of generating output in machine-readable formats. Furthermore, in order to ensure these benefits are obtained, government agencies must starting making necessary amendments by re-educating existing employees to acquire new ways of implementing tasks via online engagement. And this can also indicate introduction of work-from-home practices, using teleconferencing technologies, and mobile work platforms in order to reduce business travel to a great extent. All of these measures will , in turn, have substantial impact on the amount of energy use and thereby reduce greenhouse gas emissions originating from government agency activities, specifically when they are exhaustively applied on a the entire government (Barker 2007). Sustainable computing practices have progressively become a vital part of the professional tasks of all ICT professionals. Such responsibilities tend to assist in reducing costs throughout agencies by encouraging reduction in energy consumption, the creation of suitable product stewardship and e-waste plans, and increased awareness for the moderation of carbon emissions with the help of latest and most energy efficient technologies (Bibri 2009). In essence, one of the measures Government must take for optimizing the ICT energy consumption is to decrease the amount of servers in an agencys data centre by employing virtualization and cloud computing technologies. With data centres emerging to be prime power users, data storage needs are creating a significant increase in data centre construction. Moreover, the powerful servers now housed in data centres often demand as much cooling power as the electrical energy required to run them. As data centres mostly emit wastages through surplus hardware, memory, power supplies and network devices, government organizations need to control the wastage of energy in an accurate manner. One such way is to mature ICT assets, together with the need to harness energy use, and this indicates that todays organizations are being forced to embrace innovative strategies into their business plans in order to limit their data centre operational costs (James Hopkinson 2009). Again, virtualization and cloud computing are able to help in significantly improving sustainability performance for public sector organizations. Since cloud computing is a modern way of sourcing and delivering ICT services through the Internet on a pay-as-you-go basis, it offers a feasible alternative to build ICT infrastructure as well as application for workloads. Moreover, the combination of virtualization and cloud computing is able to reduce the requirement of expanding an agencys electronic storage demands. And the power requirements for running and cooling d ata centres now formulate as much as a quarter of global ICT carbon dioxide emissions. Besides, server virtualization reduces power consumption by enabling firms to operate multiple virtual machines across a single physical server. As different virtual machines may run different operating systems and multiple applications over the same physical computer, it eliminates the current problem of under-usage of storage space within data centres, and thereby improving data centre efficiency (Barker 2007) (Quat Fai 2009). Apart from reusing infrastructure, organizations considered recycling the rest of the infrastructure which cannot be reused. In order to enable more efficient recycling, organizations will only produce electrical products that are designed in a way to be easily disassembled to the basic component level, by using common tools. Hence, the ultimate aim of an organization must be to ensure that no waste in the electronic form has been disposed off in a landfill site. Very large scale organizations having more than 500 employees had relatively well-formulated capability in all the ICT components. Those engaged in hardware manufacture, wholesaling, as well as maintenance, were inclined towards performing better in comparison to other ICT sub-sectors. Majority of ICT firms are progressing towards clearer strategic direction regarding the opportunities linked to climate change. While 39 percent of firms reported that they had a highly transparent strategy for enabling the eco-sustainability of other industries, other 38 percent stated they had an emerging clarity, and only 23 percent of the participants either remained doubtful or inactive about the need to develop a sustainability vision. Surveyed firms declared having relatively well established processes for the usage and optimization of ICT resources, like servers, applications, networks, data storage systems, office and telephony systems, etc. Additionally, 29 percent of firms displayed maturity in the practice of disposing electronic and non-electronic wastages in an eco-friendly fashion. However, some of the firms introduce eco-sustainability design principles like less wastage, low energy utilization, less use of toxic chemicals, and more use of recyclable, renewable and reusable systems, etc at the early stages of product design and development (Janakiraman 2009). Out of the surveyed firms, 75 percent of the firms have not yet acquired any third party certification about their environmental performance. ICT solutions enabling employees to work remotely, like video-conferencing, telecommuting, and telepresence have been the most matured offerings in the global ICT sector. And such solutions/ applications are very well settled in 32 percent of the firms surveyed and these firms are operating to maintain and amend the value contribution from their offerings. Another 32percent indicated that their product category is associated with market visibility and it is a source of revenue, while 21 percent of the respondents informed no plans of offering such products (ONeil 2010). The reviewed firms demonstrated a promising portfolio of development along with initial offering of product groupings. For instance, over one-third of companies have either offered solutions for or have assigned resources for development of energy use monitoring and reporting systems, remote power management, pollution control systems, etc. Furthermore, an equal ratio of companies is also reforming their current business strategies to allow for Green ICT strategic consulting, education, training, and research (Australian Computer Society 2009). More than 40 percent of firms have identified the brand value of Greenness. These firms are also at an advanced level in using Green ICT in their marketing strategy. Use of Greenness as a marketing strategy must not always be understood as Green-washing; almost all companies which use Greenness as one of their marketing strategy employ it to add to their other value propositions like price, quality, service, etc. By doing so, these firms are not only re-branding their current products with Greenness, but also are offering initial or mature solutions which may improve the overall environmental performance of their clients and customers (Janakiraman 2009). It can be noted that firms perform comparatively better as indicators of value identification rather than as value measurement. As an example, 35 percent of respondents felt that their Green ICT products offer them with bigger competitive edge, and other 9 percent claim that Green ICT products aid them in achieving a moderate growth in competitive performance. Further 32 percent of surveyed firms conformed that they obtained higher cost and environmental footprint decrease from their Green ICT initiatives. However, approximately 40 percent of respondents believed that their Green ICT products heighten their revenue, and the last 29 percent said that the improvement is substantial. Again, 69 percent of respondents felt the need to be authorized as a concerned part of global as well as local communities and vision of senior management as two primary drivers to invest in Green ICT products and service growth. Most importantly, the key element accounted for inhibiting the adoption of Green ICT was that it is not considered as a priority, leading the lack of demand and funds (Bibri 2009) (Janakiraman 2009). Conclusion: Encouraging innovation in Green ICT will not only generate a significant reduction in the ICT sectors carbon footprint, but will also enact a crucial role in decreasing emissions across every sector of the economy. Moreover, ICT-based solutions will be the primary element in reducing carbon emissions and enhance an organizations international competitiveness. It could also give rise to global opportunities for ICI professionals and businesses (James Hopkinson 2009). Green growth which is welfare-enhancing must be realized as a prime objective by every part of the society, including governments, customers, stakeholders and overall business in general. However, it must be considered in total isolation, where it needs to address issues like investments, innovations, market openness, employee skills development/ entrepreneurship, prolonged job creation and the growth of metrics for supporting analysis of such issues along with being able to evaluate progress. Recognizing the potential of strategies for green growth across sectors can only be achieved if businesses adopt the most accurate investment framework, urge innovation, maintain market openness, discard market distortions, advance human skills and capital, and offer an overall capable and stable policy structure (Bibri 2009). Green ICT is considered to be one of the most efficient and highly effective strategies not only for the ICT market but also for virtually all business and economy sector s in order to enhance operational efficiencies to maintain market competitiveness. Together with the supply of necessary infrastructure as well as incubatory support, the local ICT sector will be enabled to grow in parallel to the global trend and turn towards becoming an active part of the vanguard in influencing the future of a greener and carbon-free business world (ONeil 2010). The literature review of the study gives an increased apprehension in the Green ICT area and analyzes Sustainable Business Practice linked to Cloud Computing. It has further looked into whether implementing a cloud computing policy will potentially enable tangible business benefits in line with wider Corporate, Social and Environmental Responsibility activities, as a result of which ICT managers are armed with opportunities to improve operational excellence and optimize technology that is underlying the business strategies and ICT infrastructure operations (Australian Computer Society 2009). The result of the research study points out that firms within the ICT sector are developing clearer strategic directions regarding their business opportunities in order to enable the eco-sustainability of other industries. Few companies could develop genuine value propositions aimed at improving the sustainability, both ecological as well as economical, of their customers by delivering products and services that resolve customers current problems. The study successfully determined the scope and richness of sustainability, as well as explored the relevance, motivators and inhibitors of cloud computing with respect to a sustainability initiative. In general, it describes that issues on how to achieve cost savings and sustainability among the organization can be addressed at early stages of maturity. Although there are signs of sustainability implementations in terms of coverage, across government at present, however, whether this is being used for driving cost saving initiatives is yet unclear (James Hopkinson 2009).

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Essay --

Boiling point, similarly to melting point, depends on the strength of forces between the particles that make up the element. When a substance boils, most of the remaining attraction forces are broken, the particles can then move freely and farther apart. The stronger that the attraction force is the more energy that is needed to overcome them and increase the boiling point. Boiling points vary in a regular way or pattern depending on their position in the periodic table. The general periodic trend is that the boiling point increases to the middle of the d block, and then decrease to the Noble Gases. The highest melting point is apparent in the middle of the transition metals because of the electron – electron repulsion. This is due to the fact that the transition metals have metallic bonding, which is a very strong bond; therefore a lot of energy is required to break them. Due to a lot of energy being needed, the boiling point is then higher.. The smallest amount of electron à ¢â‚¬â€œ electron repulsion can be found in the middle of block d. This repulsion causes the element to be less stable, thus allowing it be easier to break apart, which then results in a lower boiling point. Boiling points generally increase going from sodium to aluminum, then decrease to argon, with a minor bump at Sulfur. There is no simple way to identify the trend for boiling points when going down a column. Some groups increase when going down a column, while some decrease, and others have no trend. This is because boiling point increase when electron – electron repulsion decreases. Since electron – electron repulsion decreases going down columns on the periodic table, it can be expected that the boiling point would increase, which does not always occur. This in... ...itrogen? Than Bromine? Why Is Hydrogen so Weird? :. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Jan. 2014. "Atomic and Ionic Radius." Atomic and Ionic Radius. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Jan. 2014. "Atomic Radius of the Elements." Atomic Radius for All the Elements in the Periodic Table. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2014. "Chemical Elements Listed by Density." The Chemical Elements of the Periodic Table Sorted by Density. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Jan. 2014. "Chemistry Lesson 1 Instruction, Page 5." Chemistry Lesson 1 Instruction, Page 5. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Jan. 2014. "Electronegativity." Electronegativity. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2014. "Ionization Energy and Electron Affinity." Ionization Energy and Electron Affinity. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2014. "Periodic Table Trends." Periodic Table Trends. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Jan. 2014. "Seaborgium." WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Jan. 2014.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Graduation Speech -- Graduation Speech, Commencement Address

The first thing that comes to mind when I think of High School When I think of my past four years of school, I have a lot of memories, more good than bad. I've been trying to think of what I have learned in high school and what has meant the most to me. A lot of people that I have met along the way have left me with pieces of wisdom. I am guilty of having a one-track mind, and sometimes that has hindered me from fully benefiting from all the wisdom I have been given. But, I try my best to see other's reasoning for things and their point of view, though at times I find it very difficult. I am young, and sometimes claim to know it all, but at least I'm honest, right? So, back to what I have learned and tried to apply to my daily life. The Importance of Setting Goals Taking Responsibility for Your Actions Using Mistakes to Build a Bright Future Finding Inspiration in the World Around You Never Giving Up On a Dream The Golden Rule (Do Unto Others ... ) Never Forgetting Your Morals and Beliefs Focussing on the Important Things in Life I know all too well how important it is to set goals. I feel so overwhelmed sometimes when I set goals, but when I have accomplished them, it is such a rewarding feeling, that I strive to set more and always want to beat out my last accomplishment. I love to work hard, because I feel like I am doing everything in my power to be the best I can be. Taking responsibility for your actions can be such a tough thing to do, and pride and lack of energy can sometimes get in the way. Whether it was the time I needed to "fess" up to breaking our TV or paying for my mom's car to get fixed, when I kind of crashed it into another car when I was parking. It sucked to be as ... ... your character, who you are, if you are true to yourself, you will always be respected and looked up to. I have learned that it is really important to make priorities, not others opinions of what is important, but what is important to you. When my grandma and my aunt died within six months of each other I learned that not having the coolest hair, or the nicest clothes didn't really matter, because life's too short to worry about "things." Even though, I like my "things" they aren't that important to me and I would rather have friends or family around than my things, they're not that cool or at least I haven't found anything that is cooler! And if I could leave anyone here with one thing it would be, be true to yourself, and live life to its fullest, have fun, explore new things, and last but not least ... " Do unto others what you would want done unto you."

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Racquetball :: essays research papers

Racquetball is played by two or four players. When played by two, it is called singles and when played by four, doubles. A non-tournament variation of the game that is played by three players is called cut-throat. Racquetball is a competitive game in which a strung racquet is used to serve and return the ball. The objective is to win each rally by serving or returning the ball so the opponent is unable to keep the ball in play. A rally is over when a player (or team in doubles) is unable to hit the ball before it touches the floor twice, is unable to return the ball in such a manner that it touches the front wall before it touches the floor, or when a hinder is called. Points are scored only by the serving side when it serves an irretrievable serve (an ace) or wins a rally. Losing the serve is called a sideout in singles. In doubles, when the first server loses the serve it is called a handout and when the second server loses the serve it is a sideout. A match is won by the first side winning two games. The first two games of a match are played to 15 points. If each side wins one game, a tiebreaker game is played to 11 points. The specifications for the standard four-wall racquetball court follow. (a) Dimensions. The dimensions shall be 20 feet wide, 40 feet long and 20 feet high, with a back wall at least 12 feet high. All surfaces shall be in play, with the exception of any gallery opening, surfaces designated as out-of-play for a valid reason (such as being of a very different material or not in alignment with the backwall), and designated court hinders. (b) Markings. Racquetball courts shall be marked with lines 1 1/2 inches wide as follows: 1. Short Line. The back edge of the short line is midway between, and is parallel with, the front and back walls. 2. Service Line. The front edge of the service line is parallel with, and five feet in front of, the back edge of the short line. 3. Service Zone. The service zone is the 5' x 20' area bounded by the bottom edges of the side walls and by the outer edges of the short line and the service line. 4. Service Boxes. The service boxes, used in doubles play, are located at each end of the service zone and are designated by lines parallel with the side walls.

Dr. Martin Luther King

I believe that history has re-shaped the truth behind Dr. Martin Luther King’s life as a leader of the anti-racism and anti-segregation movement. Although he had been given many awards, including the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to end segregation and racial discrimination through civil disobedience and other non-violent means, obviously after his sudden death, many of his radical ideas were omitted simply because they are not what the politicians wanted the public to know. I think Taylor Branch was right in saying that â€Å"our nation has slept for decades under the spell of myths grounded in race.† King had protested on the deliberate discrimination of blacks by policies that promote the whites. What King said in his speech â€Å"Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence† is to put equality among blacks and whites in the forefront of every US citizen. He may have gained awards but his more radical ideas were forgotten or were left behind, encapsulated in myths that were more appealing. And people only accepted what were told to them. An example of this deliberate downplaying of King’s radical ideas is written in Branch’s article. Blacks were recruited and sent to the Vietnam War together with the whites yet the ones who gained more popularity were the whites. The blacks were set aside. White supremacy is very evident. Again, this is the result of the dominating rule of racial discrimination. Work Cited: â€Å"Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence.† 4 May 1999. 9 April 2008. <> Branch, Taylor. â€Å"The Last Wish of Martin Luther King.† 6 April 2008. 9 April 2008. <>   

Monday, September 16, 2019

Dance Critique Essay

Late last Saturday day night, on April 14,2012, I attended the very first dance concert at John Anthony Theater at Collin College Spring Creek Campus. This concert was performed by Collin Dance Ensemble, which is a vibrant company that performs innovative contemporary modern dance. Their goal is to produce dance works at the highest level of artistic excellence. The dance company attends and performs at the American College Dance Festival annually and has been selected for the Gala Performance at the regional festivals sevens times. At 7:30 pm, people started walking in to the theater, just a few minutes after, the audience seats filled with the crowed people who come to support the dancer, or maybe interested in dance performance, and mostly have â€Å"dance appreciation fever† like me. After the introduction of director, all the lights dimed down and the curtain slide up. The light focuses in the middle of the proscenium stage where there are group of seven dancers sat down in the middle of the stage ready to perform. They started it off with the piece called Friendships that was choreographer by the Chair of Dance Department and also a director of Collin Dance Ensemble, Tiffanee Arnold. Under the direction of Tiffanee Arnold, Collin College’s Dance Program has gained the reputation for excellence in dance education, choreography and performance. Music is Sinking Friendships by Jonsi, this piece was kind of bored to me as an unprofessional audience to really understand the concept of every part o f the story they tried to tell. Not very clear, but I can point out some of the movement of the dancer described the image of friendships such as holding hands and dance in circle as a group. And it was ballet so I’m not very interested. Outside topic, the theater was freezing cold. I try to concentrate to the performance to forget the coldness. The Time Between choreography by Reyna Mondragon is one of my favorite piece of the show. There were many of interesting parts, there were people ran across the stage back and forth while few others were illustrated the movement of time. The dance used running motion to create tick tick tick moves, it looked kind of cool to demonstrate the clock ticking. Through the  music by Clint DiFranco, Welcome to Lunar Industries, this piece is very modern. I love how to change the speed now and then during the performance. They just went freestyle in the climax of the song; there were a lot of running and walking movements, jumping, exciting and then they cut it out the slow motion dance with rhythm and powerful moves. People still ran across the stage, in my opinion they say that does not matter what’s going around you, time keeps running and life goes on. So far that night, one bored me and one got my attention to the show. Here comes the solo of Jake Harkey, the only male student in the group, performed Unseen Injuries by Tiffanee Arnold. This dance is in support of Collin College’s Center for Scholarly and Civic Engagement Book-In-Common: Soft Spots by Clint Van Winkle. And also it was inspired by several passages in the book, in particular: â€Å"But nobody talks about the mental wounds. It is the unseen injury that slips through the cracks, leads people to drinking, puts pressure on spouses, and causes healthy men to call the fire department for host symptoms. You are suppose to about-face and forward-march, forget about the war as soon as you get home, take 800 mg of Motrin and carry on like nothing ever happened. But how was I supposed to let go when I was reliving it every day?† (p.137; C. Van Winkle). One soldier, one person stood still in the middle of the stage. He was on the basic training clothes letting all the extensive madness out of his head. He raised the hands to try to reach out a reality of peace. Sometimes, he look back at what he had done as a soldier and all the images of war come back in his mind. The stress out anger movement was dynamic with the vocal sound. I can feel the pain through what he wanted to tell. He used wide range of space to show the falling and depression. He nailed the part wonderful as a college student. The one-foot stand come up to me as unbalance mind of a soldier in the war. Growing up in a country had a long history of fighting in war, I learn and see a lot about the soldier that come back from the war through real life and books. I can see in them not only the physical pain they had been through but also the spiritual scar that the war had impacted in them. I think that is why this piece Unseen Injuries gets my intention the most. The obsession will follow  them for the rest of their life. Narrative modern dance described the feeling of those soldier had been yearly in war. The performer was success to send out emotion of a soldier after war. It would seem sadly they are often overlooked impacting not only the injured but their friends, families and wider communities. Those with psychological trauma can go undetected and it can be years before medical treatment is sought. Tiffanee has a great choice on music of Message in a Bottle: Nancy’s Letter. Farewell Nancy by Ed Harcourt is very romantic and particular fit in the motif of this dance. I see a lot of dancing on ground level to create the sea scene. Soft and flexible are the word to describe their actions. The music inspired me to more focus on the dance. It represents the emotion of the main character want to see her lover so badly in distance relationship. And she also is a quite entertainer with piece Can’t Shake It. It got people excitement by their funky dance moves on those fluffy dresses. The audiences included myself were very enjoyable in this song. They showed that they couldn’t shake most part of their body from their trunk to head. Shame face and frustrated movements revealed to be ashamed part of their body couldn’t be shake. I think the dancer also enjoy themselves in such a piece. The performer are all college student so they were bit lack of perfection timing with each other and the steady movements which required in most ballet pieces. They were connected to the audience strongly in Scars, strong movements and ran toward downstage at the end. I would they were success to give out the message of each piece to me as the audience. Just a few was kind of bitter to figure out. I was born in 90s so ballet and jazz were not my type of entertaining dance. It is little bit far from my generation. But modern is more enjoyable to me. I like to move fast with rhythm especially hit all the beat of the music is way cooler. I don’t know any of Jazz moves in there cause I cannot tell. One thing I saw a lot that the modern and ballet, those dancers use many of motif manipulations such as incorporative with the turn and jump, repetition, levels (ground, middle, high jump),  rhythm was actually the part that I pay attention the most. Overall the concert was very great to me. Couple piece I did not understand what they try to say at all or I just did not be interested. Through all pieces by Tiffanee Arnold, I see that her choreography always tell a story along the dance. There is always something meaningful and deep down inside the performance that she wants the audience to see the piece and later on cautious thinking the background story.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Emerging adulthood Essay

One of the most important features of emerging adulthood is that this age period allows for exploration in love, work, and worldviews more than any other age period. The process of identity formation emerges in adolescence but mostly takes place in emerging adulthood. Regarding love, although adolescents in the United States usually begin dating between ages 12 and 14, they usually view this dating as recreational. It is not until emerging adulthood that identity formation in love becomes more serious.[4] While in the United States during adolescence dating usually occurs in groups and in situations such as parties and dances, in emerging adulthood, relationships last longer and often include sexual relations as well as cohabitation.[5] As far as work, the majority of working adolescents in the United States tend to see their jobs as a way to make money for recreational activities rather than preparing them for a future career.[6] In contrast, 18 to 25 year olds in emerging adulthood view their jobs as a way to obtain the knowledge and skills that will prepare them for their future adulthood careers. Undergoing changes in worldviews is a main division of cognitive development during emerging adulthood.[7] People in emerging adulthood that choose to attend college often begin college or university with the worldview they were raised with and learned in childhood and adolescence. However, emerging adults who have attended college or university have been exposed to and have considered different worldviews, and eventually commit to a worldview that is distinct from the worldview with which they were raised by the end of their college or university career.[ Emerging adulthood is the sole age period where there is nothing that is demographically consistent.[16][17] In contrast, of adolescents in the United States up to age 18, over 95% live at home with at least one parent, 98% are not married, under 10% have become parents, and more than 95% attend school.[18] Similarly, people in their thirties are also demographically normative: 75% are married, 75% are parents, and under 10% attend school.[18] Residential status and school attendance are two reasons that the period of emerging adulthood is incredibly distinct demographically. Regarding residential status, emerging adults in the United States have very diverse living situations.[4] About one third of emerging  adults attend college and spend a few years living independently while partially relying on adults.[19] Contrastingly, 40% of emerging adults do not attend college but live independently and work full-time.[19] Finally, around two-thirds of emerging adults in the United States cohabitate with a romantic partner.[20] Regarding school attendance, emerging adults are extremely diverse in their educational paths (Arnett, 2000, p. 470-471). Over 60% of emerging adults in the United States enter college or university the year after they graduate from high school.[21] However, the emerging adulthood years that follow college are extremely diverse – only about 32% of 25-29 year-olds have finished four or more years of college.[18] This is because higher education is usually pursued non-continuously, where some pursue education while they also work, and some do not attend school for periods of time.[4] Further contributing to the variance, about one third of emerging adults with bachelor’s degrees pursue a postgraduate education within a year of earning their bachelor’s degree.[22] Thus, because there is so much demographic instability, especially in residential status and school attendance, it is clear that emerging adulthood is a distinct entity based on its demographically non-normative qualities, at least in the United States.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Competency Goal II Essay

I try to teach the children to stay healthy by getting the proper exercise that is needed for them. I take the children outside everyday if it’s not too hot, or too cold. I practice forms of yoga in the morning and the evenings with the children. This is to stretch their muscles, and to get their blood flowing. Exercising helps the children in the morning if they are still tired. Also, I’ve learned that the children have a better day when they are not tired and sleepy. Functional Area 5: Cognitive As a head start teacher I try to plan activities to develop strong thinking skills. I try to plan activities for cognitive development that make children think. I ask open-ended questions; play verbal guessing games, memory games, and other sensory motor activities. When I ask questions I use current events and experiences that the children can relate to. For an example, I’ve asked the children what happened to Goldilocks once she ran into the woods. Then, I wait for thinking gestures from the children. Their responses were the following: â€Å"She ran as fast as she can away from the Three Bears, she went home and told her mom, and she went home and called the police.† I also, play verbal guessing games such as, â€Å"Guess Who† â€Å"What is white, looks like a horse, and has black stripes?† The children guessed a zebra. I would do an activity like this after checking for prior knowledge (a story about zoo animals or a field trip to the zoo). In addition to open-ended questions and guessing games, I play the â€Å"Memory game.† First we look at all the pictures (starting with about twenty cards or ten mates). Then we place the cards face down and I model by picking up a card and turning it over. Then I turn over another and then the first child follows what I modeled. The children really enjoy this game. Their memory starts kicking in once I turn over quite a few cards. Lastly, but not limited to, I play a guessing game that uses the sense of touch. I use two paper bags, and each one has different contents. I put play dough in one and sand in another. I blind fold each child, allow them to feel the content  inside the bag, and chart their guesses from what they feel. They also describe it to the best of their knowledge. This game really gets them thinking. As a head start teacher cognitive development is very important as well as the other objectives for preschoolers. I try to plan activities to develop a strong thinking skills foundation for children. I try to plan activities for cognitive development that make children think, wonder, and explore. I believe that sensory motor games and memory games are great choices for developmentally appropriate actives to strengthen cognitive skills. Functional Area 6: Communication In order to know if a child is learning, I often ask questions. I give each child an opportunity to build their communication skills. Children really like when I interact and acknowledge what they have to say. In the morning meetings, I make sure that all the children have a chance to tell the class how they are doing and what they look forward to doing throughout the school day. While interacting with the children I remind each child to use their words in order to express themselves. Not only do I read to my children daily but I also play music with different vocabulary words in order for the children to learn new words daily. Functional Area 7: Creativity As a head start teacher, I once believed that creativity was a challenging task. When I start planning activities around the children’s interest, it became much easier. One day the children and I were discussing woodlands. The children where all excited to know that I planned a camp fire. I ask the children what could be used for a pretend fire. The children decided that a paper towel roll could be used as a log. Then I asked how can a fire be started? One child began to rub his two pointing fingers together. I said â€Å"Good idea!† Then I asked what could be used as sticks to rub together to start our pretend fire. Another child suggested that to use two yellow pencils. So we all took turns rubbing the sticks together. After the material was gathered together, I asked what color construction paper could be used to make our camp fire look like fire. Several of children decided on using the following colors: red, orange, blue, and even purple. The children and I placed the logs crisscross. The children and I  pushed the construction paper strips into a slip in the paper towel rolls. Then we used balls of white paper as marsh mellows, attached it to a pencil, and pretended to roast marsh mellows. One child said, â€Å"We need brown paper for gram crackers.† So the children and I cut squares of brown construction paper to make pretend gram crackers. This is how the camp fire was created. This was a creative activity that I planned around the children’s interest. I found it to be easier to plan activities for creativity by consulting the children first. I listen to their conversations from previous discussions and came up with the pretend camp fire activity. I have planned other creative activities using the same strategy to get the children involved.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Reforms in Competition Policy in the UK Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Reforms in Competition Policy in the UK - Essay Example This research will begin with the statement that in any business environment, competition is a vital element that brings about both positive and negative results. This is because it is seen as a sort of reward for innovation and efficiency, it is also enhances productivity within any given country or region. In addition, competition ensures that customers can get low price and more choices. Besides this, their living standards are raised. Indeed, if competition is supported by the right competition policies, then a country can be well on its way to achieve economic prosperity. In this context, policies in this area are necessary to ensure that trade practices are regulated, undue competition is restricted through legislature and that markets are strengthened so that businesses can become viable in the global market. Competition policies are designed to ascertain that the financial market is opened up. Besides this, it also floats the country's currency and decreases trade barriers. T here are a number of direct benefits that come out of competition policies to businesses; some of these include low costs for utilities like electricity, telephones and other telecommunication charges. Transportation costs are also reduced like rail freights and port. However, country's undertaking such policies should be aware that this involves a high cost to them. There are a large number of parties that are affected negatively by this kind of scheme. The first are industries, the second are households, the third are industries and even regions n general. Households are the ones who have to bear the burden of job cuts and consequently loss of income spiralling from competition policies. Prime Minister Gordon Brown believes that the function of competition policy is to promote competition and to reinforce markets. He believes that its purpose is to regulate the business environment such that purchasers and challenges can be protected. In addition, incentives in business mustn't be obliterated; they should still be able to create, invest and take risks. Recent changes in competition policy have been centred along these latter mentioned principles. The UK parliament has looked at merger laws that were passed in the competition policy of 1998. This merger law has been placed under scrutiny by parliament through the Enterprise bill. This Bill that was passed in the year 2000 was designed to regulate mergers within the business environment. The law stipulates that mergers should be made only when they do not limit competition. Mergers that give such indications are to be taken to the Office of Fair Trading. This body will determine whether the merger should be subjected to further scrutiny under the Competition Commission which has the mandate to halt or allow progress of the merger. These reforms are aimed at providing some additional safeguards against unfair trade practices. Some business owners contemplating mergers may have unfair possession of assets if the mergers are completed thus justifying the need for regulations. There are a number of services that have blockages in regards to mergers. An example of an unhealthy merger that was prohibited in the year 1999 was the Manchester United/ BSkyB merger. Such a merger would present considerable problems to the business environment surrounding media communications. Firstly, the merger was going to give the media Company undue vertical privileges that would inhibit other players in the industry. Consequently, this effect would then trickle down to the final consumer and cause dissatisfaction because only one company has exclusive privileges and will therefore have more market power. Restrictions of competitive agreements and dominant positions in the market Competition policies in the recent past also regulate provision of services that are outside the traditional domain of any business. This has received a lot of emphasis after technological advancements.

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Effect of Conquest of America on Europe's relationship with Africa and Essay

Effect of Conquest of America on Europe's relationship with Africa and Asia - Essay Example Each ship that ventured out to the unknown world has gold, territory and glory as objectives for the country it served. When America was discovered, it was found that its natural resources were in abundance and in the flurry of new explorations fueled by the American colonial success, they found Asia and Africa and the new resources that they had to offer, resources that can be easily exploited and easily compliment their interests in the New World. It is in this respect that the African slavery became significant. The mines of Peru and Mexico, the plantations in Brazil and the Caribbean - they required new laborers after the number of indigenous peoples were effectively decimated upon the arrival of the colonizers. According to Crosby (2003), the Andean Inca civilization alone lost more than 8 million of its 9 million indigenous natives (22). During most of the period of colonization of Africa, its main utility for its colonizers were its slaves. Millions of Africans were shipped to the plantations in America and this trade in itself has been a major source of revenue for Portugal. Besides the slaves, however, Africa also supplied ivory, gold, diamonds, cocoa, nut oils and timber. The case of Asian relationship with Europe, the situation is a little more different than the African experience. Unlike the latter, Asia fell to European colonization rather later. It was only after the 1850s wherein the West made some significant headway in colonizing the Far East. This variable contributed to the manner by which the Asian colonies were exploited and administered. For instance, Spain ruled the Philippines through Mexico. Then, Asian slaves were not common while their raw materials produce and other products were either sent to Europe or to Latin America for processing. Britain was also able to milk India dry with its precious stones, spices, tea, and other resources. Asia, somehow, was treated like Latin America, a source of wealth for its masters that wield their power from Europe but not in the degree or manner the Europeans exploited Africa. What the colonization of the Americas, Asia and Africa demonstrated was the fact that these continents became embroiled with some form of globalization especially producing a type of division of labor that we could actually identify as roughly similar to what we have today. One analogy that could probably describe the situation was how other races were exploited in order to enrich and provide for the requirements of the European imperialists. A less emotional description would argue that during the age of colonization, nations became engaged with specialization in goods production and in occupation by their respective peoples, according to the resources of their home countries and their status in the empire that they belong. An important variable that must be underscored in this investigation is the fact that the European hegemony during the Age of Discovery is not mainly driven by the absolute superio rity of the European technologies and weaponry. Spain, for example has risen to its imperial status and consolidated its global

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

The Evolution of Technology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The Evolution of Technology - Essay Example In the early 1990’s Internet has revolutionized the world. Communication is being made at the speed of light. E-commerce is the result of the Internet. Instead of outdoor shopping, many people are purchasing goods through the Internet. Human beings are different from another animal, that’s why they are called as social animals. This is because they can think and most importantly can communicate easily with each other. To reduce the gap between geographical areas and the curiousness of man to know what’s on the side has made him invent different things.Thousands of years ago they started communicating with each other. In 3500BC alphabets were invented in the written form. This helped in the introduction of postal service. This way communication between different parties was made. But for long distances it became difficult.The Chinese invented paper and the book came by 100AD. Slowly all the writings were entered into the books. Books were best for storing informat ion for a long time without causing much damage. Newspapers were introduced into the Europe by 1450AD. Newspapers were the best way to know about the issues happening nationwide. Joseph Henry invented the first telegraph in 1831. With the help of telegraph, information was passed much quicker compared to others in those times. The biggest invention of the 19th century was the telephone. Nowadays we can’t imagine the world without a telephone. Slowly one after the other motion picture, the radio, television, computers, etc., were invented.... With the help of telephone communication between people became much faster. Nowadays we can't imagine the world without a telephone. Slowly one after the other motion picture, radio, television, computers, etc., were invented.In early centuries transportation was carried out with the help of bullock carts, horses and other means. For short distances they were effective but were not that much of help for long distances. Slowly as the centuries gone by many different transport systems were invented and introduced into the market. Ships, trains and automobiles revolutionised the transport system. Long distance travelling was made safer and much better than the earlier ones. Ships and trains were not only used for transporting passengers but also used for transporting large cargo. These transporting systems were very much comfortable to the passengers. Biggest achievement during industrial revolution was the introduction of trains. Railroads played major role for the success. Many railroads were laid across different countries. With invention of steam engine trains were travelling at much higher speeds. Long distances were covered in short periods. Nowadays bullet trains were introduced. They travel at a speed of more than 400 km/h. Here space was covered at fast pace. We could say that time and space was collapsing. One of the biggest inventions of 20th century was the aeroplane. The Wright brothers were the first to invent it. Slowly after making many modifications it was used for transportation. To be airborne an aeroplane has to travel at a speed of more than 90 km/h. Now jumbo jets are used for transporting people. A single jumbo jet can transport more than 300 passengers. And these can move more than 1000 km/h. Concorde can